Pharmacology Mnemonics 3

Therapeutic dosage: toxicity values for most commonly monitored
medications
 “The magic 2s”:
Digitalis (.5-1.5) Toxicity = 2.
Lithium (.6-1.2) Toxicity = 2.
Theophylline (10-20) Toxicity = 20.
Dilantin (10-20) Toxicity = 20.
APAP (1-30) Toxicity = 200.

 

 

Opioids: effects BAD AMERICANS:
Bradycardia & hypotension
Anorexia
Diminished pupilary size
Analgesics
Miosis
Euphoria
Respiratory depression
Increased smooth muscle activity (biliary tract constriction)
Constipation
Ameliorate cough reflex
Nausea and vomiting
Sedations

 

 

Delerium-causing drugs ACUTE CHANGE IN MS:
Antibiotics (biaxin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin)
Cardiac drugs (digoxin, lidocaine)
Urinary incontinence drugs (anticholinergics)
Theophylline
Ethanol
Corticosteroids
H2 blockers
Antiparkinsonian drugs
Narcotics (esp. mepridine)
Geriatric psychiatric drugs
ENT drugs
Insomnia drugs
NSAIDs (eg indomethacin, naproxin)
Muscle relaxants
Seizure medicines

 

 

Disulfiram-like reaction inducing drugs “PM PMT” as
in Pre Medical Test in the PM:
Procarbazine
Metronidazole
Cefo (Perazone, Mandole, Tetan).

 

 

Zafirlukast, Montelukast, Cinalukast: mechanism, usage “Zafir-lukast,
Monte-lukast, Cina-lukast“:
· Anti-Lukotrienes for Asthma.
· Dazzle your oral examiner: Zafirlukast antagonizes leukotriene-4.

 

 

4-Aminopyradine (4-AP) use “4-AP is For AP“:
For AP (action potential) propagation in Multiple Sclerosis.

 

 

Direct sympathomimetic catecholamines DINED:
Dopamine
Isoproterenol
Norepinephrine
Epinephrine
Dobutamine

 

 

Vir-named drugs: use “-vir at start, middle or end
means for virus”:
· Drugs: Abacavir, Acyclovir, Amprenavir, Cidofovir,
Denavir, Efavirenz, Indavir, Invirase, Famvir,
Ganciclovir, Norvir, Oseltamivir, Penciclovir,
Ritonavir, Saquinavir, ValacyclovirViracept, 
Vir
amune, Zanamivir, Zovirax.

 

 

Nitrofurantoin: major side effects NitroFurAntoin:
Neuropathy (peripheral neuropathy)
Fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis)
Anemia (hemolytic anemia)

 

 

Steroids: side effects BECLOMETHASONE:
Buffalo hump
Easy bruising
Cataracts
Larger appetite
Obesity
Moonface
Euphoria
Thin arms & legs
Hypertension/ Hyperglycaemia
Avascular necrosis of femoral head
Skin thinning
Osteoporosis
Negative nitrogen balance
Emotional liability

 

 

Methyldopa: side effects METHYLDOPA:
Mental retardation
Electrolyte imbalance
Tolerance
Headache/ Hepatotoxicity
psYcological upset
Lactation in female
Dry mouth
Oedema
Parkinsonism
Anaemia (haemolytic)

 

 

Sodium valproate: side effects VALPROATE:
Vomiting
Alopecia
Liver toxicity
Pancreatitis/ Pancytopenia
Retention of fats (weight gain)
Oedema (peripheral oedema)
Appetite increase
Tremor
Enzyme inducer (liver)

 

 

Captopril (an ACE inhibitor): side effects CAPTOPRIL:
Cough
Angioedema/ Agranulocystosis
Proteinuria/ Potassium excess
Taste changes
Orthostatic hypotension
Pregnancy contraindication/ Pancreatitis/ Pressure drop
(first dose hypertension)
Renal failure (and renal artery stenosis contraindication)/ Rash
Indomethacin inhibition
Leukopenia/ Liver toxicity

 

 

Lead poisoning: presentation ABCDEFG:
Anemia
Basophilic stripping
Colicky pain
Diarrhea
Encephalopathy
Foot drop
Gum (lead line)

 

 

Beta-blockers: main contraindications, cautions ABCDE:
Asthma
Block (heart block)
COPD
Diabetes mellitus
Electrolyte (hyperkalemia)

 

 

Lupus: drugs inducing it HIP:
Hydralazine
INH
Procanimide

 

 

Lithium: side effects LITH:
Leukocytosis
Insipidus [diabetes insipidus, tied to polyuria]
Tremor/ Teratogenesis
Hypothyroidism

 

 

SSRIs: side effects SSRI:
Serotonin syndrome
Stimulate CNS
Reproductive disfunctions in male
Insomnia

 

 

Metabolism enzyme inducers “Randy’s Black Car
Goes Putt Putt and Smokes“:
Rifampin
Barbiturates
Carbamazepine
Grisoefulvin
Phenytoin
Phenobarb
Smokingcigarettes

 

 

Phenobarbitone: side effects Children are annoying (hyperkinesia,
irritability, insomnia, aggression).
Adults are dosy (sedation, dizziness, drowsiness).

 

 

Cholinergics (eg organophosphates): effects If you know
these, you will be “LESS DUMB“:
Lacrimation
Excitation of nicotinic synapses
Salivation
Sweating
Diarrhea
Urination
Micturition
Bronchoconstriction

 

 

Routes of entry: most rapid ways meds/toxins enter body “Stick
it, Sniff it, Suck it, Soak it”:
Stick = Injection
Sniff = inhalation
Suck = ingestion
Soak = absorption

 

 

Depression: 5 drugs causing it PROMS:
Propranolol
Reserpine
Oral contraceptives
Methyldopa
Steroids

 

 

Hepatic necrosis: drugs causing focal to massive necrosis “Very
Angry Hepatocytes”:
Valproic acid
Acetaminophen
Halothane

 

 

Warfarin: action, monitoring WePT:
Warfarin works on the extrinsic pathway and is monitored by PT.

 

 

Beta-blockers: side effects “BBC Loses Viewers
IRochedale”:
Bradycardia
Bronchoconstriction
Claudication
Lipids
Vivid dreams & nightmares
-ve Inotropic action
Reduced sensitivity to hypoglycaemia

 

 

Zero order kinetics drugs (most common ones) “PEAZ
(sounds like pees) out a constant amount”:
Phenytoin
Ethanol
Aspirin
Zero order
· Someone that pees out a constant amount describes zero order kinetics (always
the same amount out)

 

 

Benzodiazepines: actions “Ben SCAMs Pam into
seduction not by brain but by muscle”:
Sedation
anti-Convulsant
anti-Anxiety
Muscle relaxant
Not by brain: No antipsychotic activity.

 

 

Beta-1 vs Beta-2 receptor location “You have 1 heart
and 2 lungs“:
Beta-1 are therefore primarily on heart.
Beta-2 primarily on lungs.

 

 

Cisplatin: major side effect, action “Ci-SplatIn“:
Major side effect: Splat (vomiting sound)–vomiting so severe that
anti-nausea drug needed.
Action: Goes Into the DNA strand.

 

 

Pupils in overdose: morphine vs. amphetamine “MorPHINE:
Fine. AmPHETamine: Fat“:
Morphine overdose: pupils constricted (fine).
Amphetamine overdose: pupils dilated (fat).

 

 

Atropine use: tachycardia or bradycardia “A goes with
B“:
Atropine used clinically to treat Bradycardia.

 

 

Reserpine action Reserpine depletes the 
Reser
ves of catecholamines [and serotonin].

 

 

Botulism toxin: action, related bungarotoxin Action: “Botulism
Bottles up the Ach so it can’t be the released”:
Related bungarotoxin: “Botulism is related to Beta Bungarotoxin
(beta-, not alpha-bungarotoxin–alpha has different mechanism).

 

 

Ipratropium: action Atropine is buried in the middle:
iprAtropium, so it behaves like Atropine.

 

 

Bleomycin: action “BleoMycin Blow
My
 DNA to bits”:
Bleomycin works by fragmenting DNA (blowing it to bits).
MyDNA signals that its used for cancer (targeting self cells).

 

 

Propranolol and related ‘-olol’ drugs: usage “olol
is just two backwards lower case b’s.
Backward b’s stand for “beta blocker”.
· Beta blockers include acebutolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol,
oxprenolol, propranolol.

 

 

Succinylcholine: action, use Succinylcholine gets 
Stuck
 to Ach receptor, then Sucks ions in through open pore.
You Suck stuff in through a mouth-tube, and drug is used for intubation.

Leave a Reply