Pharmacology Mnemonics 3

Therapeutic dosage: toxicity values for most commonly monitored
medications
 “The magic 2s”:
Digitalis (.5-1.5) Toxicity = 2.
Lithium (.6-1.2) Toxicity = 2.
Theophylline (10-20) Toxicity = 20.
Dilantin (10-20) Toxicity = 20.
APAP (1-30) Toxicity = 200.

 

 

Opioids: effects BAD AMERICANS:
Bradycardia & hypotension
Anorexia
Diminished pupilary size
Analgesics
Miosis
Euphoria
Respiratory depression
Increased smooth muscle activity (biliary tract constriction)
Constipation
Ameliorate cough reflex
Nausea and vomiting
Sedations

 

 

Delerium-causing drugs ACUTE CHANGE IN MS:
Antibiotics (biaxin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin)
Cardiac drugs (digoxin, lidocaine)
Urinary incontinence drugs (anticholinergics)
Theophylline
Ethanol
Corticosteroids
H2 blockers
Antiparkinsonian drugs
Narcotics (esp. mepridine)
Geriatric psychiatric drugs
ENT drugs
Insomnia drugs
NSAIDs (eg indomethacin, naproxin)
Muscle relaxants
Seizure medicines

 

 

Disulfiram-like reaction inducing drugs “PM PMT” as
in Pre Medical Test in the PM:
Procarbazine
Metronidazole
Cefo (Perazone, Mandole, Tetan).

 

 

Zafirlukast, Montelukast, Cinalukast: mechanism, usage “Zafir-lukast,
Monte-lukast, Cina-lukast“:
· Anti-Lukotrienes for Asthma.
· Dazzle your oral examiner: Zafirlukast antagonizes leukotriene-4.

 

 

4-Aminopyradine (4-AP) use “4-AP is For AP“:
For AP (action potential) propagation in Multiple Sclerosis.

 

 

Direct sympathomimetic catecholamines DINED:
Dopamine
Isoproterenol
Norepinephrine
Epinephrine
Dobutamine

 

 

Vir-named drugs: use “-vir at start, middle or end
means for virus”:
· Drugs: Abacavir, Acyclovir, Amprenavir, Cidofovir,
Denavir, Efavirenz, Indavir, Invirase, Famvir,
Ganciclovir, Norvir, Oseltamivir, Penciclovir,
Ritonavir, Saquinavir, ValacyclovirViracept, 
Vir
amune, Zanamivir, Zovirax.

 

 

Nitrofurantoin: major side effects NitroFurAntoin:
Neuropathy (peripheral neuropathy)
Fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis)
Anemia (hemolytic anemia)

 

 

Steroids: side effects BECLOMETHASONE:
Buffalo hump
Easy bruising
Cataracts
Larger appetite
Obesity
Moonface
Euphoria
Thin arms & legs
Hypertension/ Hyperglycaemia
Avascular necrosis of femoral head
Skin thinning
Osteoporosis
Negative nitrogen balance
Emotional liability

 

 

Methyldopa: side effects METHYLDOPA:
Mental retardation
Electrolyte imbalance
Tolerance
Headache/ Hepatotoxicity
psYcological upset
Lactation in female
Dry mouth
Oedema
Parkinsonism
Anaemia (haemolytic)

 

 

Sodium valproate: side effects VALPROATE:
Vomiting
Alopecia
Liver toxicity
Pancreatitis/ Pancytopenia
Retention of fats (weight gain)
Oedema (peripheral oedema)
Appetite increase
Tremor
Enzyme inducer (liver)

 

 

Captopril (an ACE inhibitor): side effects CAPTOPRIL:
Cough
Angioedema/ Agranulocystosis
Proteinuria/ Potassium excess
Taste changes
Orthostatic hypotension
Pregnancy contraindication/ Pancreatitis/ Pressure drop
(first dose hypertension)
Renal failure (and renal artery stenosis contraindication)/ Rash
Indomethacin inhibition
Leukopenia/ Liver toxicity

 

 

Lead poisoning: presentation ABCDEFG:
Anemia
Basophilic stripping
Colicky pain
Diarrhea
Encephalopathy
Foot drop
Gum (lead line)

 

 

Beta-blockers: main contraindications, cautions ABCDE:
Asthma
Block (heart block)
COPD
Diabetes mellitus
Electrolyte (hyperkalemia)

 

 

Lupus: drugs inducing it HIP:
Hydralazine
INH
Procanimide

 

 

Lithium: side effects LITH:
Leukocytosis
Insipidus [diabetes insipidus, tied to polyuria]
Tremor/ Teratogenesis
Hypothyroidism

 

 

SSRIs: side effects SSRI:
Serotonin syndrome
Stimulate CNS
Reproductive disfunctions in male
Insomnia

 

 

Metabolism enzyme inducers “Randy’s Black Car
Goes Putt Putt and Smokes“:
Rifampin
Barbiturates
Carbamazepine
Grisoefulvin
Phenytoin
Phenobarb
Smokingcigarettes

 

 

Phenobarbitone: side effects Children are annoying (hyperkinesia,
irritability, insomnia, aggression).
Adults are dosy (sedation, dizziness, drowsiness).

 

 

Cholinergics (eg organophosphates): effects If you know
these, you will be “LESS DUMB“:
Lacrimation
Excitation of nicotinic synapses
Salivation
Sweating
Diarrhea
Urination
Micturition
Bronchoconstriction

 

 

Routes of entry: most rapid ways meds/toxins enter body “Stick
it, Sniff it, Suck it, Soak it”:
Stick = Injection
Sniff = inhalation
Suck = ingestion
Soak = absorption

 

 

Depression: 5 drugs causing it PROMS:
Propranolol
Reserpine
Oral contraceptives
Methyldopa
Steroids

 

 

Hepatic necrosis: drugs causing focal to massive necrosis “Very
Angry Hepatocytes”:
Valproic acid
Acetaminophen
Halothane

 

 

Warfarin: action, monitoring WePT:
Warfarin works on the extrinsic pathway and is monitored by PT.

 

 

Beta-blockers: side effects “BBC Loses Viewers
IRochedale”:
Bradycardia
Bronchoconstriction
Claudication
Lipids
Vivid dreams & nightmares
-ve Inotropic action
Reduced sensitivity to hypoglycaemia

 

 

Zero order kinetics drugs (most common ones) “PEAZ
(sounds like pees) out a constant amount”:
Phenytoin
Ethanol
Aspirin
Zero order
· Someone that pees out a constant amount describes zero order kinetics (always
the same amount out)

 

 

Benzodiazepines: actions “Ben SCAMs Pam into
seduction not by brain but by muscle”:
Sedation
anti-Convulsant
anti-Anxiety
Muscle relaxant
Not by brain: No antipsychotic activity.

 

 

Beta-1 vs Beta-2 receptor location “You have 1 heart
and 2 lungs“:
Beta-1 are therefore primarily on heart.
Beta-2 primarily on lungs.

 

 

Cisplatin: major side effect, action “Ci-SplatIn“:
Major side effect: Splat (vomiting sound)–vomiting so severe that
anti-nausea drug needed.
Action: Goes Into the DNA strand.

 

 

Pupils in overdose: morphine vs. amphetamine “MorPHINE:
Fine. AmPHETamine: Fat“:
Morphine overdose: pupils constricted (fine).
Amphetamine overdose: pupils dilated (fat).

 

 

Atropine use: tachycardia or bradycardia “A goes with
B“:
Atropine used clinically to treat Bradycardia.

 

 

Reserpine action Reserpine depletes the 
Reser
ves of catecholamines [and serotonin].

 

 

Botulism toxin: action, related bungarotoxin Action: “Botulism
Bottles up the Ach so it can’t be the released”:
Related bungarotoxin: “Botulism is related to Beta Bungarotoxin
(beta-, not alpha-bungarotoxin–alpha has different mechanism).

 

 

Ipratropium: action Atropine is buried in the middle:
iprAtropium, so it behaves like Atropine.

 

 

Bleomycin: action “BleoMycin Blow
My
 DNA to bits”:
Bleomycin works by fragmenting DNA (blowing it to bits).
MyDNA signals that its used for cancer (targeting self cells).

 

 

Propranolol and related ‘-olol’ drugs: usage “olol
is just two backwards lower case b’s.
Backward b’s stand for “beta blocker”.
· Beta blockers include acebutolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol,
oxprenolol, propranolol.

 

 

Succinylcholine: action, use Succinylcholine gets 
Stuck
 to Ach receptor, then Sucks ions in through open pore.
You Suck stuff in through a mouth-tube, and drug is used for intubation.

Pharmacology Mnemonics 2

Insulin: mixing regular insulin and NPH “Not Ready,
Ready Now”:
Air into NPH
Air into Regular
Draw up Regular
Draw up NPH

 

 

Benzodiazepins: 3 members that undergo extrahepatic metabolism
Outside The Liver”:
Oxazepam
Temazepam
Lorazepam
These undergo extrahepatic metabolism and do not form active metabolites.

 

 

Guanethidine: mechanism GuaNEthidine prevents NE
(norepinephrine) release.

 

 

Parasympathetic vs. sympathetic neurotransmitters “No
sympathy for a Pair of Aces”:
Norepinephren is secreted in by the Sympathetic nervous system
while Acetylcholine is secreted in the Parasympathetic nervous
system.

 

 

Adrenoceptors: vasomotor function of alpha vs. beta ABCD:
Alpha = Constrict.
Beta = Dilate.

 

 

Beta 1 selective blockers “BEAM ONE up, Scotty”:
Beta 1 blockers:
Esmolol
Atenolol
Metropolol

 

 

Opiods: mu receptor effects “MD CARES“:
Miosis
Dependency
Constipation
Analgesics
Respiratory depression
Euphoria
Sedation

 

 

Cancer drugs: time of action between DNA->mRNA ABCDEF:
Alkylating agents
Bleomycin
Cisplastin
Dactinomycin/ Doxorubicin
Etoposide
Flutamide and other steroids or their antagonists (eg tamoxifen,
leuprolide)

 

 

Busulfan: features ABCDEF:
Alkylating agent
Bone marrow suppression s/e
CML indication
Dark skin (hyperpigmentation) s/e
Endrocrine insufficiency (adrenal) s/e
Fibrosis (pulmonary) s/e

 

 

Tricyclic antidepressants: members worth knowing “I have to
hide, the CIA is after me”:
Clomipramine
Imipramine
Amitrptyline
· If want the next 3 worth knowing, the DND is also after me:
Desipramine
Norrtriptyline
Doxepin

 

 

Asthma drugs: leukotriene inhibitor action zAfirlukast:
Antagonist of lipoxygenase
zIlueton: Inhibitor of LT receptor

 

 

Torsades de Pointes: drugs causing APACHE:
Amiodarone
Procainamide
Arsenium
Cisapride
Haloperidol
Eritromycin

 

 

Serotonin syndrome: components Causes HARM:
Hyperthermia
Autonomic instability (delirium)
Rigidity
Myoclonus

 

 

Beta blockers: B1 selective vs. B1-B2 non-selective A
through N: B1 selective
: Acebutalol, Atenolol, Esmolol, Metoprolol.
O through Z: B1, B2 non-selective:Pindolol, Propanalol, Timolol.

 

 

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): side effects,
contraindications, interactions
 HMGCoA:
· Side effects:
Hepatotoxicity
Myositis [aka rhabdomyolysis]
· Contraindications:
Girl during pregnancy/ Growing children
· Interactions:
Coumarin/ Cyclosporine

 

 

Therapeutic index: formula TILE:
TI = LD50 / ED50

 

 

Antirheumatic agents (disease modifying): members CHAMP:
Cyclophosphamide
Hydroxycloroquine and choloroquinine
Auranofin and other gold compounds
Methotrexate
Penicillamine

 

 

Auranofin, aurothioglucose: category and indication Aurum
is latin for “gold” (gold’s chemical symbol is Au).
Generic Aur- drugs (Auranofin, Aurothioglucose) are gold
compounds.
· If didn’t learn yet that gold’s indication is rheumatoid arthritis, AUR- Acts
Upon Rheumatoid.

 

 

Antiarrhythmics: class III members BIAS:
Bretylium
Ibutilide
Amiodarone
Sotalol

 

 

MAOIs: indications MAOIS:
Melancholic [classic name for atypical depression]
Anxiety
Obesity disorders [anorexia, bulemia]
Imagined illnesses [hypochondria]
Social phobias
· Listed in decreasing order of importance.
· Note MAOI is inside MelAnchOlIc.

 

 

SIADH-inducing drugs ABCD:
Analgesics: opioids, NSAIDs
Barbiturates
Cyclophosphamide/ Chlorpromazine/ Carbamazepine
Diuretic (thiazide)

 

 

K+ increasing agents K-BANK:
K-sparing diuretic
Beta blocker
ACEI
NSAID
Ksupplement

 

 

Diuretics: thiazides: indications “CHIC to use
thiazides”:
CHF
Hypertension
Insipidous
Calcium calculi

 

 

Ribavirin: indications RIBAvirin:
RSV
Influenza B
Arenaviruses (Lassa, Bolivian, etc.)

 

 

Parkinsonism: drugs SALAD:
Selegiline
Anticholinenergics (trihexyphenidyl, benzhexol, ophenadrine)
L-Dopa + peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor (carbidopa, benserazide)
Amantadine
Dopamine postsynaptic receptor agonists (bromocriptine, lisuride,
pergolide)

 

 

Morphine: effects at mu receptor PEAR:
Physical dependence
Euphoria
Analgesia
Respiratory depression

 

 

Thrombolytic agents USA:
Urokinase
Streptokinase
Alteplase (tPA)

 

 

Anticholinergic side effects “Know the ABCD’S of
anticholinergic side effects”:
Anorexia
Blurry vision
Constipation/ Confusion
Dry Mouth
Sedation/ Stasis of urine

 

 

Teratogenic drugs “WTERATOgenic”:
Warfarin
Thalidomide
Epileptic drugs: phenytoin, valproate, carbamazepine
Retinoid
ACE inhibitor
Third element: lithium
OCP and other hormones (eg danazol)

 

 

Antiarrhythmics: classification I to IV MBA College
· In order of class I to IV:
Membrane stabilizers (class I)
Beta blockers
Action potential widening agents
Calcium channel blockers

 

 

Epilepsy types, drugs of choice “Military General
Attacked Weary Fighters Pronouncing ‘Veni
Vedi Veci’ After Crushing Enemies”:
· Epilepsy types:
Myoclonic
Grand mal
Atonic
West syndrome
Focal
Petit mal (absence)
· Respective drugsy:
Valproate
Valproate
Valproate
ACTH
Carbamazepine
Ethosuximide

 

 

Respiratory depression inducing drugs “STOP
breathing”:
Sedatives and hypnotics
Trimethoprim
Opiates
Polymyxins

 

 

Pulmonary infiltrations inducing drugs “Go BAN Me!”:
Gold
Bleomycin/ Busulphan/ BCNU
Amiodarone/ Acyclovir/ Azathioprine
Nitrofurantoin
Melphalan/ Methotrexate/ Methysergide

 

 

Migraine: prophylaxis drugs “Very Volatile 
P
harmacotherapeutic Agents For Migraine Prophylaxis”:
Verpamil
Valproic acid
Pizotifen
Amitriptyline
Flunarizine
Methysergide
Propranolol
· Bare bones version [eg Lippincott’s two], just Migraine Prophylaxis,
as above.

 

 

Benzodiazapines: ones not metabolized by the liver (safe to use in
liver failure)
 LOT:
Lorazepam
Oxazepam
Temazepam

 

 

Vigabatrin: mechanism Vi-GABATrIn:
ViGABA Transferase Inhibition

 

 

TB: antibiotics used STRIPE:
STreptomycin
Rifampicin
Isoniazid
Pyrizinamide
Ethambutol

 

 

Propythiouracil (PTU): mechanism It inhibits PTU:
Peroxidase/ Peripheral deiodination
Tyrosine iodination
Union (coupling)

 

 

Enoxaprin (prototype low molecular weight heparin): action,
monitoring
 EnoXaprin only acts on factor Xa.
Monitor Xaconcentration, rather than APTT.

 

 

Beta-blockers: nonselective beta-blockers “Tim Pinches
His Nasal Problem” (because he has a runny nose…):
Timolol
Pindolol
Hismolol
Naldolol
Propranolol

 

 

Nicotinic effects MTWTF (days of week):
Mydriasis/ Muscle cramps
Tachycardia
Weakness
Twitching
Hypertension/ Hyperglycemia
Fasiculation

 

 

Muscarinic effects SLUG BAM:
Salivation/ Secretions/ Sweating
Lacrimation
Urination
Gastrointestinal upset
Bradycardia/ Bronchoconstriction/ Bowel movement
Abdominal cramps/ Anorexia
Miosis

 

 

Phenytoin: adverse effects PHENYTOIN:
P-450 interactions
Hirsutism
Enlarged gums
Nystagmus
Yellow-browning of skin
Teratogenicity
Osteomalacia
Interference with B12 metabolism (hence anemia)
Neuropathies: vertigo, ataxia, headache

 

 

Gynaecomastia-causing drugs DISCOS:
Digoxin
Isoniazid
Spironolactone
Cimetidine
Oestrogens
Stilboestrol

 

Pharmacology Mnemonics 1

RTI: drugs to treat viral respiratory infections “You’d get
respiratory infection if you shoot an ARO (arrow) laced with 
viruses
 into the lungs“:
ARO:
Amantadine
Rimantadine
Oseltamivir

 

 

Medication administration: short checklist TRAMP:
· Before dispensing medication, ensure have correct:
Time
Route
Amount
Medication
Patient

 

 

Opiates: overdose findings “Cool to the touch, unresponsive
to pain,
Hunger diminished, and scars over vein.
Pupils pinpointed, and blood pressure low,
Urine diminished, and breathing is slow.”

 

 

Cocaine: cardiovascular effect COcaine causes blood
vessels to
COnstrict (unlike other local anesthetics which cause vasodilation).

 

 

Aminoglycosides: common characteristics AMINO:
Active Against Aerobic gram negative
Mechanism of resistance are Modifying enzymes
Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to 30S subunit
Nephrotoxic
Ototoxic

 

 

Sulfonamides: common characteristics SULFA:
Steven-Johnson syndrome/ Skin rash / Solubility low
Urine precipitation/ Useful for UTI
Large spectrum (gram positives and negatives)
Folic acids synthesis blocker (as well as synthesis of nucleic acids)
Analog of PABA

 

 

Diuretics: groups “Leak Over The CAN“:
Loop diuretics
Osmotics
Thiazides
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
Aldosterone inhibitors
Na (sodium) channel blockers
· Note: “leak” is slang for urination and “can” is slang for a toilet.

 

 

Thalidomide: effect on cancer cells “Thalidomide
makes the blood vessels hide“:
Use thalidomide to stop cancer cells from growing new blood vessels.

 

 

Tuberculosis: treatment If you forget your TB drugs, you’ll
die and might need a PRIEST“:
Pyrazinamide
Rifampin
Isoniazid (INH)
Ethambutol
STreptomycin

 

 

Warfarin: interactions ACADEMIC QACS:
Amiodarone
Cimetidine
Aspirin
Dapsone
Erythromycin
Metronidazole
Indomethacin
Clofibrates
Quinidine
Azapropazone
Ciprofloxacin
Statins

 

 

Patent ductus arteriosus: which prostaglandin keeps it open
kEEp opEn with prostaglandin E.

 

 

Carbamazepine (CBZ): use CBZ:
Cranial Nerve V (trigeminal) neuralgia
Bipolar disorder
Zeisures

 

 

Morphine: side-effects MORPHINE:
Myosis
Out of it (sedation)
Respiratory depression
Pneumonia (aspiration)
Hypotension
Infrequency (constipation, urinary retention)
Nausea
Emesis

 

 

Corticosteroids: adverse side effects CUSHINGS BAD MD:
Cataracts
Up all night (sleep disturbances)
Suppression of HPA axis
Hypertension/ buffalo Hump
Infections
Necrosis (avascular)
Gain weight
Striae
Bone loss (osteoporosis)
Acne
Diabetes
Myopathy, moon faces
Depression and emotional changes

 

 

Tricyclic antidipressents (TCA): side effects TCA’S:
Thrombocytopenia
Cardiac (arrhymia, MI, stroke)
Anticholinergic (tachycardia, urinary retention, etc)
Seizures

 

 

Bromocriptine [for USA gang members] The CRYPTS are
an LA street gang that likes to smoke DOPE.
BromoCRYPTine is a DOPamine agonist.

 

 

Beta blockers: members “The NEPAL Prime
Minister”:
Timolol
Nadolol
Esmolol
Pindolol
Atenolol
Labetalol
Propranolol
Metoprolol

 

 

Microtubules: drugs that act on microtubules. “The 
M
icroTubule Growth Voiding Chemicals”:
Thiabendazole
Mebendazole
Taxol
Griseofulvin
Vincristine/ Vinblastine
Colchicine

 

ECG of Ventricular tachycardia

Electrocardiogram_of_Ventricular_Tachycardia

 

12 lead electrocardiogram showing a run of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia

ECG of Supraventricular tachycardia

svt

 

An 12 lead ECG showing supraventricular tachycardia at about 180 beats per min.

 

 

ECG of Complete Heart Block

ecg4

 

  • P waves are not conducted to the ventricles because of block at the AV node. The P waves are indicated below and show no relation to the QRS complexes. They ‘probe’ every part of the ventricular cycle but are never conducted.
  • The ventricles are depolarised by a ventricular escape rhythm.

ecg5

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