medicalwebsites

Top Pathology resources and websites مواقع باثولوجي

 Reference Websites:

  1. Pathology Outlines [comprehensive “online textbook” of pathology]
  2. PathCONSULT (Elsevier) [broad “online textbook” of pathology]
  3. The Knowledge Hub (USCAP) [collected educational materials form past USCAP conferences]
  4. CAP Cancer Reporting Checklists (College of American Pathologists)
  5. University of Virginia Pathology Tutorials [GU, gyne, hemepath, parasitology]
  6. Cancer Management Guidelines (BC Cancer Institute)
  7. eMedicine Pathology Articles [virtual textbook by entity]

Pathobiology:

  1. “Medical School Pathology” (John Minarcik)
  1. General Pathology Lectures [based on Robbin’s first 10 chapters] [Youtube link]
  2. Corresponding “Multiheader” Slide-Based Histopathology Videos
  1. YouTube Pathology Lectures (based on the first 10 chapters of Robbins)
  2. The Basic Medical Pathology Series (NLM, UAB)
  3. The Online Interactive Pathology Laboratory (IPLAB) (UAB) [designed to compliment Robbins textbook]
  4. Basic Pathology Concepts Tutorial (JHU)

Unknown Case Conferences (weekly, monthly):

  1. Surgical Pathology Online Unknown Cases (JHU) [new cases weekly; free registration required]
  2. GI & Liver Pathology Case Conference (JHU) [2-4 new cases per month]
  3. Case of the Week (pathologyoutlines.com) [archived cases by category or diagnosis]
  4. Online Case Studies (U Pittsburgh) [new case weekly]
  5. Division of Cytopathology Interesting Case Conference (JHU) [>100 old cases; free registration required]
  6. Cytology Case of the Month (cytologystuff.com) archived cases
  7. PathMD AP/CP Board Review [monthly exam practice questions; question archiveanswer archive,image archive]
  8. Case of the month (College of American Pathologists)
  9. Image of the week (Pathology Network, Lippincott)
  10. Enjoy pathology (U Colorado professor) [case collections in surg path, dermpath, and hemepath]

Pathology Atlases

  1. WebPathology (webpathology.com) [particularly strong in urologic/gynecologic/breast images]
  2. PathPedia e-Atlas (pathpedia.com) [histology and histopathology]
  3. SurgPath4U [library of entities by organ site with diagnostic feature walkthroughs]

Virtual Slide Libraries:

  1. USCAP Virtual Slide Box (USCAP) [with virtual microscopy]
  2. Leeds Virtual Slide Library [with virtual microscopy] <— hint: just select an organ system and click         “search”
  3. Virtual Slidebox of Histopathology (U of Iowa) [virtual slides]
  4. PathXchange (pathxchange.org) [community-contributed cases]
  5. Pathology Pics [posted photomicrographs, quick practice cases, question of the day]
  6. Epathologies “Pathology Quizzes” (St Joseph University)
  7. Jaun Rosai’s Collection of Surgical Pathology Seminars (rosaicollection.org) [virtual slides]
  8. Youtube Histopathology (John Minarcik)
  1. AdrenalAppendixBoneBladderBone MarrowBrainBreastCervixColonEsophagus,EyeFallopian TubeGallbladderHeartJointKidneyLiverLungLymph NodeMouth,MuscleNeckNoseOvaryPancreasParathyroidPenisPituitaryProstateSalivary Gland,SkinSmall IntestineSoft TissueSpleenStomachTestisThymusThyroidUreter,UterusVaginaVesselsVulva

Textbooks for Download:

  1. IARC Publications (International Agency for Research on Cancer); Includes:
  1. WHO Classification of Tumors: Pathology and Genetics of Tumour of the Digestive System
  2. WHO Classification of Tumors: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone
  3. WHO Classification of Tumors: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Skin
  4. WHO Classification of Tumors: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs
  5. WHO Classification of Tumors: Pathology and Genetics of Head and Neck Tumours
  6. WHO Classification of Tumors: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Lung, Pleura, Thymus, and Heart

Immunostains:

  1. Immunohistochemical Vade Mecum (Dr. P Bishop) [IHC stain reference]
  2. NordIQ Epitope Descriptions (not for profit)
  3. Immunohistochemistry FAQ [textbook companion]
  4. PathologyOutlines.com: [ Stains A-E | Stains F-Z and Cell Cycle | CD Markers ]
  5. Antibody and Beyond (antibodybeyond.com)
  6. Immunohistochemistry World (ihcworld.com)
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medical-students

4 bad reasons why medical students choose a specialty

“I love the hours.”
“I want to be just like Dr. Smith. He has a sweet practice.”
“I want to make a ton of money.”

These are some bad reasons why medical students choose a specialty. Most medical students decide what specialty to pursue when they are in their mid to late 20s. While we all think we are pretty wise and informed by that time, often we are fairly immature in our thinking and don’t fully consider the “big picture” when deciding what we are going to do for the remainder of our lives and careers. Medical students can also be in a proverbial ‘bubble” during medical school, busy studying and spending long hours in the hospital, with little time outside of the “medical world.”

This, too, can lead to a warped perspective that doesn’t involve the “real world” or consideration of what life might be like after training. In deciding on a specialty, do not base your decision on “bad reasons,” which include more than those above:

1. You want to make a lot of money. Maybe you also want to join a field with “status.” Most medical students have loans and therefore have a practical reason for a high-paying specialty choice. However, as you have likely heard before, money alone won’t make you happy. You will be practicing your specialty for the rest of your life and even if you decide to become a plastic surgeon because of the big bucks often associated with the practice, if you don’t enjoy the types of procedures and patients it entails, you might be miserable despite your big bank account. I had one student who was eager to have a big home, take fancy vacations, and generally live a life of luxury. After doing his research and seeing all of the glossy ads in local magazines for cosmetic surgeons, he realized this would be a great choice to reach his goals. He shadowed a community doctor who had a thriving cosmetics practice and performed many cosmetic surgeries, botox, and other “beauty enhancements.” After shadowing this doctor for a week, the student decided he would not enjoy caring for this patient population. However, he reasoned that he could ‘deal’ with it if he was making a lot of money since he could spend his leisure time as he wished. However, after considering that most of his waking hours would be spent in the operating room or the office, he realized that perhaps he should consider another specialty.

By the same token, many medical school students are, by nature, very competitive and want to join a specialty that has a “wow factor.” They are concerned – will people be impressed when they hear what I do? Will I be saving lives? Status alone won’t carry you through a long career. You must, at a very basic level, enjoy the work you do. Also, as you mature, your values may change. In your late 20s, spending long hours in the hospital may seem glamorous and appealing, but as you get older and have family and other responsibilities you may not want to work as intensely as some specialties demand.. Keep in mind that stereotypical heroic specialties such as neurosurgery, emergency medicine, trauma surgery, and oncology often require a tremendous amount of emotional stamina, leaving little for your personal life.

2. You love the hours and want a specialty that is “easy.” Many students choose a specialty thought to have ‘easy hours.’ The fields that come to mind are the E-ROAD specialties – emergency medicine (EM), radiology, ophthalmology, anesthesiology, and dermatology. The hours related to these specialties often aren’t that “easy, however.” Anesthesiologists, for example, routinely wake up at about 5 AM because operating rooms open early. Even though full-time emergency physicians put in about 35 – 40 hours per week, they work odd hours – evenings, nights, and weekends. Emergency physicians often spend their “off time” recuperating or “bouncing back” from late shifts. Odd hours can take a toll in the long term, something that’s difficult to understand when you are young. One student, who was always a night owl, considered a career in EM, figuring that she could “handle” the circadian rhythm disturbances. But, after doing her EM rotation, she saw how wiped out some of the attending physicians were and decided this would not be the best long term choice for her overall health and well being.

3. You were impressed by someone in a particular specialty, and you want to be just like that person. You are on your surgery rotation and you meet a person who represents the type of physician you want to be in the future. She is swift in the OR and deals with unexpected complications with aplomb. Yet she is also kind, compassionate, and deeply invested in her patients and their outcomes. She is also a real team player who treats everyone on her team with warmth and support. You want to be like her when you grow up so you decide to meet with her to discuss the idea of becoming a surgeon. At that meeting, she tells you that working in academic medicine has many demands. She must publish, participate in hospital committees, teach, do research, and attend grand rounds even when not presenting. You tell her that all you hope to do is practice community medicine so she suggests you gain exposure to the field of surgery “in the community.” During your winter break, you shadow a community surgeon. The work doesn’t seem nearly as exciting as the work in an academic setting. The surgeon has busy, but lonely, days filled with OR time, outpatient visits, and administrative work. Confused, you consider what other specialties might interest you.

During medical school, most of the people you meet and your clinical rotations will take place in academic hospital settings. Yet the majority of medical school graduates will not practice in these arenas; most will practice in community settings. The reality is that specialties are practiced very differently in different settings, and many students select a specialty based on their understanding of how it is practiced only in an academic medical setting. It is important, when you meet ‘the doctor you hope to become,’therefore, to be sure to really talk to her, find out exactly what her career entails, and “test out” your specialty in those settings in which you are most likely to practice.

4. You don’t really want to practice the specialty you are choosing or you plan to practice for only a short time. I sometimes hear students say, “Well, I don’t really want to practice that specialty. My goal is to get out of clinical medicine or just practice one part of the specialty.” For example, some students think if they pursue EM, they can graduate and just work day or urgent care shifts. Or, someone may pursue a residency in several disciplines with the intent of gaining clinical experience and then “going into industry.” Others may choose a specialty that would make them a good candidate to become talk show hosts. While some people are successful when pursuing careers that are tangentially or barely related to medicine, most are not. If you know as a premedical or medical student that you really don’t want to practice medicine, perhaps you should give your medical school seat to someone else and consider what other careers might be more fulfilling.

So how should you decide on a field to pursue? Whatever your reasons for choosing a specialty, you need to fundamentally enjoy its subject matter, the disease processes, the type of practice, and the patients for whom you will be caring. Ideally, you also want a career that will have longevity.

In making a decision, it is essential that you view your life in the future. Fast forward 20 years. Where do you want to be? How do you hope to be practicing? Find role models who are older than you. Ask them what they like or don’t like about their specialties. Would they make a different choice now that they have a more mature perspective? Many people who practice primary care have great lifestyles and can also practice for a long time because the practice is not the most physically or emotionally rigorous. In general, outpatient medical practice and specialties, which some medical students consider “boring” since they lack the “excitement” of others, allow doctors to work for a long time.

To achieve the same goal, many doctors try to leave the “intense part of their specialty for something less vigorous; for example, orthopedic surgeons may practice solely outpatient sports medicine, and ob/gyns sometimes leave the OR to practice only outpatient gynecology. Emergency physicians may transition from main emergency department work to outpatient urgent care. In deciding on a specialty, do your research, explore how your desired specialty is practiced in many settings and, most of all, be honest with yourself.

MEDICAL-SCHOOL

7 Habits of Highly Successful Medical Students

Congratulations! You’ve made it through O Chem, survived your MCAT, traipsed around the country to every interview you could fit in your budget, and received that elusive acceptance email. Once you take a moment to celebrate, you will realize that the real challenge lies ahead. Medical school serves as the launch pad to your career and excelling there can open the door to opportunities. Whether you want a career in academics or private practice, psychiatry or radiology or orthopedic surgery, doing well in medical school is critical to getting into the residency that will get you there. But how do you “do well”? “Study hard and do well in your clinical years” was advice I heard a lot, but hardly pointed the way to success. Now, as a fourth year medical student, I realize there are certain key habits of the successful medical student. I wish I could claim all the habits for myself – rather, they are an amalgam of what I’ve learned and what I’ve observed in others. They can help lay the foundation to your successful future.

Habit 1: Learn how you learn. Then just do it.
Medical school can be a bit of a shock. We all know it will be hard, requiring long hours, but the sheer enormity of knowledge we need to master (or at least make a passing acquaintance with) can be overwhelming. You will need to figure out how you learn best, and most efficiently. Is it taking copious notes in class? Drawing pictures of dissections? Re-listening to lectures on your iPhone while out for a run? I was a solitary studier all through college, poring over all the required reading and taking notes. I tried to continue this pattern in medical school. This worked fine during the first term, which was largely a review of basic science principles I knew well already. However, after getting my results back on the first anatomy exam at the start of our second term, I realized something had to change. My response was to join a study group. While I might have avoided my areas of weakness when studying alone, in a group, we’d be sure to go over all those annoying branches of the brachial plexus. This is a habit that will help you beyond medical school. The field of medicine is one of life-long learning. We will constantly need to update our knowledge of our field by reading journals, attending conferences, and discussing interesting cases with our colleagues.

Habit 2: Look beyond your books.
You may feel like you need to study 24/7, but if you never leave the library, you will miss out on a lot your medical school has to offer. Join clubs, get involved with student government, sign up for a committee. Not only will you contribute to the culture of your medical school and help make it a more enriching place for other medical students, you never know what connections you might make. One of my peers who joined the student government found herself rubbing shoulders with many faculty, including department chairs. When she decided she was interested in radiology, she was able to set up a time to have an informal chat with the department chairman, as she already knew him. By being involved, you will be learning how to network and establish connections that will serve you throughout your career.

Habit 3: Give back.
We all spent time in our pre-med years scurrying amongst volunteer experiences in an attempt to become a better applicant, er, and to give back to the community, of course. Don’t stop with that acceptance letter. Medical school provides lots of opportunities; you have a chance to contribute to the community, make connections, develop new skills and, yes, they can go on your residency application. I served as a co-director of our student-run free clinic. It not only gave me a chance to work on my leadership skills, but also helped me discover that I enjoy the administrative aspect of medicine as well, something that impacted my career decisions.

Habit 4: Be adventurous, both professionally and personally – you never know where it may lead you.
What you may not realize at the beginning of medical school is how quickly the time goes by and how soon you will need to be making decisions about your specialty. Early exploration can be invaluable in helping you make your decision. The summer between first and second year, another of my colleagues had the opportunity to do a research project with the ophthalmology department. Although it wasn’t a specialty she was particularly familiar with, she liked the people she was working with and threw herself into the project. She found her passion and is now starting her ophthalmology residency. Many medical schools offer opportunities to go abroad. Even (especially!) if you’re not an international traveler, these can be great experiences, exposing you to other medical cultures.

Habit 5: Recognize your own strengths (and weaknesses).
To get into medical school, you’ve likely been at the top of your class most of your life. The thing about medical school is that all of your classmates have as well. And, when grades come out, not everyone can be at the top of the class. For me, this moment was rather sobering – and demoralizing. Allow yourself not to be really good at everything. Work on your weaknesses so they don’t become your Achilles’ heel, but don’t dwell on them. Instead, feed your strengths. Nowhere in my Dean’s letter does it say, “And she is not so great at anatomy.”

Habit 6: Establish a circle of mentors.
Some schools have formal mentoring programs, connecting students with faculty or senior medical students with junior medical students. Take advantage of these. If your school doesn’t have one (and even if it does), be on the lookout for others who may serve this role – you’ll meet many if you follow Habit 2. For me, my mentors come from various backgrounds and fields – a radiologist, a pediatrician, a psychiatrist, a bench scientist and a number of more senior medical students, to name a few. Other medical students can provide invaluable advice on issues they recently dealt with, ranging from how to study for boards (“Make a schedule!”) or how to survive surgery (“Always eat breakfast!”). Faculty mentors help to provide perspective; they’ve seen many students go through the ups and downs of medical school and can give a broader view, or at least assure you that how you’re feeling is not unique. That time back in first year when I did poorly on my first anatomy exam? It was one of my faculty mentors who encouraged me to join a study group. Now, sorting through residency programs, my mentors have helped me weigh my options and look at my priorities.

Habit 7: Take time for you.
You are more than medical school – you were before and you will be after. Take time to nurture your relationships, with friends, family and significant others. You may feel all that you are up for after a week of courses is studying in your pajamas interspersed with watching cat videos online, but take a real break and go grab coffee with friends. Take care of yourself. Go to the gym, cook a real meal on occasion, take a walk. Your life should not go completely on hold while you are in medical school. Finding that balance is critical for your career. A friend who graduated last year was weighing his options for residency, including going to his “dream” institution. In the end, though, he realized he would be happier going to another institution that would keep him close to his family and friends. Now, as he slogs through intern year, he is buoyed by his support system. Give yourself the chance to flourish and your career will as well.

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