Category Archives: diseases

The 6 most proven ways to quit smoking

(CNN) — For more than 50 years we’ve known that smoking can kill you.

It is still the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. and yet 42.1 million people light up and new smokers start every day.

“Smoking is my best friend,” Atlantan Barry Blackwell said. “It’s always with me long after friends have left and people have gone, they are always here.” stop-smoking-340

To help people who do want to quit, scientists have looked with great interest into what works. Especially since studies have shown that 90% of those who try to quit, will start smoking again despite their best efforts.

Here are some options that have been scientifically proven to work, at least some of the time.

Financial incentives

Financial benefit from quitting, may be your best bet — literally — particularly if you risk losing your own money.

A new study that runs this week in the New England Journal of Medicine shows some promising results. Looking at more than 2,500 people enrolled in a CVS Caremark program, the study found people who had a financial incentive to quit had some remarkable success, at least after 12 months of trying.

The most successful program was one in which a person deposited $150 first. The person would get that plus $650 more if they successfully refrained from smoking. People in that program also got advice on quitting, access to a free counseling program and were offered nicotine-replacement therapy like gum or the patch. Of those people, 52.3% quit.

The next biggest group to quit, got an $800 incentive (without having to put down a deposit) and the other resources. Only 17.1% were successful with the larger payout but no potential loss of their own money.

Cold turkey

Only the most disciplined among us can quit without any help. Studies show only about 4-7% can do it without any additional help.

If you want to try this method, what works best is to be mentally prepared, the experts say, and really commit to it. Also, get ready for the symptoms of withdrawal.

The folks at Quit Smoking Community.org suggest you drink water when the cravings start. Distract yourself with something else. Maybe go for a walk or go talk to someone. Try breathing deeply and slowly and think it though. It’ll be tough, but the feelings will pass.

One other thing that could help is to ask for support. Let your friends and family know that you are trying to quit. They can help keep you honest.

Find company

Love can help you through, according to a recent study that ran in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine.

Just less than half of the men in that study were successful in their attempt to quit if their partner also quit, compared to 8% success if their partner did not stop. Similarly, half of women quit if their male partners also quit smoking. Positive peer pressure seems to help.

Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT)

Inhalers, nasal sprays, lozenges, gum and skin patches that deliver nicotine slowly are designed to help smokers get over the initial cravings and symptoms of withdrawal. And they do seem to help.

A scientific literature review that looked at more than 150 different tests of these devices (accounting for more than 50,000 people) showed that the likelihood someone would quit when using them increased by 50-70%. No one method seemed to work better than the other, nor did these devices work any better (or worse) with counseling.

The study does caution that people considered heavier smokers may need to use more product than lighter smokers. Starting to use one of these NRTs shortly before you really make up your mind to quit may make them more effective. People who use NRTs in combination with the antidepressant bupropion also show additional success.

Prescription drugs

Talk to your doctor if you want to take the prescription route, but there are some drugs that seem to have some success, especially if used with an NRT. In addition to drugs like bupropion, there’s something called varenicline, also known by the brand name Chantix. This works by targeting the nicotine receptors in your brain. That means you don’t get as much pleasure from smoking and it lowers your feelings of withdrawal. Some studies have shown taking this drug can more than double your chances of quitting compared to taking no drugs at all.

E-cigarettes

The jury is still out on this method.

In 2014, a study that ran in the British journal the Lancetfound of the 657 people trying to quit over a period of six months, e-cigarettes did help about 7.3% to quit. That was more than the 5.8% of the people in the study who used a patch. What stood out most to the study’s authors was that so few the people were successful quitting using any method. They concluded more research is urgently needed.

Another group that presented their research at the American Thoracic Society Conference this month found that while some people did quit using e-cigarettes rather than regular cigarettes, they didn’t necessarily quit for good. Looking at more than a thousand people who wanted to quit, the authors found those who had more success quitting in the short term used e-cigarettes, but this effect was no longer observed at three- or six-month followups.

Something to keep in mind

Quitting smoking is considered one of the hardest bad health habits to break. The American Cancer Society cautions, “The truth is that quit smoking programs, like other programs that treat addictions, often have fairly low success rates. But that doesn’t mean they’re not worthwhile or that you should be discouraged.”

If you do quit, it dramatically lowers your chances of getting lung cancer and many other types of cancer. It reduces your risk of heart disease and stroke significantly, and reduces your chances of getting other kind of lung problems. Smoking ages your skin and studies show an increasing number of people say they won’t date smokers, so quitting improves your social life too.

How to choose the right sunscreen

Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the U.S. In fact, it is probably more common than you think. Did you know that one in five Americans will develop skin cancer at some point in their lives? sunscreen

Every year, about 3.5 million cases of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell skin cancer are diagnosed. It is estimated that in 2015, melanoma – the most deadly form of skin cancer – will account for more than 73,000 cases of the disease. Each year, there are more new cases of skin cancer than breast, prostate, lung and colon cancer combined.

The best way to protect yourself from skin cancer is to stay out of the sun. However, most people enjoy the sun too much to completely avoid it. Plus, sun exposure is essential for us to get vitamin D. So the next best thing you can do is to wear sunscreen. But with so many types of sunscreen to choose from, how do you know which one is right for you?

First, let’s talk about SPF. SPF stands for Sun Protection Factor, which is a measure of how well sunscreen will protect our skin from UVB rays. UVB rays are the type of radiation that causes sunburn, skin damage and can contribute to skin cancer. However, it is important to protect our skin not only from UVB rays, but UVA rays as well.

When choosing a sunscreen, there are three main things you should look for. Make sure you choose a sunscreen that is 1) at least SPF 15 or higher, 2) broad spectrum (protects from UVB and UVA rays), and 3) water-resistant.

SPF rates how effective the sunscreen is in preventing sunburn caused by UVB rays. So, if you normally burn in about ten minutes, SPF 15 multiplies that by a factor of 15. This means you could go 150 minutes before burning.

For most people, SPF 15 works just fine. However, if you have very fair skin, a family history of skin cancer, or a condition like lupus which makes a person more sensitive to sunlight, you may want to consider SPF 30 or higher. Also, SPF 30 does not mean you are getting twice the protection. SPF 15 blocks 93 percent of UVB rays while SPF 30 blocks 97 percent of UVB rays.

A broad-spectrum sunscreen is key in protecting your skin from both UVB and UVA rays because both can harm your skin. A broad-spectrum, or full-spectrum, sunscreen is designed to protect you from both. UVA rays can prematurely age your skin which can cause wrinkles and age spots. UVB rays can burn your skin. Too much exposure to UVA or UVB rays can cause skin cancer.

Water-resistant sunscreen is a must since your regular sunscreen can rub off when the sun makes us sweat or while swimming. Water-resistant sunscreen means it will stays effective after 40 minutes in the water. Because sunscreen is not water-proof, you must reapply after sweating or swimming.

Ultimately, the best sunscreen involves staying in the shade and wearing protective accessories such as a hat and sunglasses. You can still get a great tan, even in the shade. This is especially important when the sun’s UV rays are the strongest, which is between the hours of 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.

Bizarre Virus That Survives Boiling Acid Can Help Battle Human Diseases

A group of scientists say they have unlocked the secrets of a bizarre virus, which can lead to the development of a new tool to battle human ailments. The nearly indestructible virus, which can survive harsh environments such as boiling acid, is expected to help scientists use genetic therapy to cure diseases.virus

The virus, called “SIRV2,” infects a microscopic organism that lives in “extremely unusual” conditions such as acidic hot springs where temperatures top 175 degrees Fahrenheit. The researchers identified similarities between the way SIRV2 forces its DNA into a protective structural state, called “A-form,” and the methods used by bacterial spores to survive in inhospitable environments.

“Some of these spores are responsible for very, very horrific diseases that are hard to treat, like anthrax,” Edward H. Egelman of the University of Virginia’s Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Geneticssaid in a statement. “So we show in this paper that this virus actually functions in a similar way to some of the proteins present in bacterial spores.”

According to the scientists, finding an effective way for DNA delivery that’s necessary for successful gene therapy is important because the human body has several ways to degrade a foreign DNA to combat harmful viruses. But this protective mechanism has been a major obstacle for doctors who seek to use foreign genes to battle diseases.

Creating an impenetrable DNA package would overcome that problem, with SIRV2 offering a promising template to achieve that goal, scientists said in a study, published in the journal Science last week.

“We’ve discovered what appears to be a basic mechanism of resistance – to heat, to desiccation, to ultraviolet radiation,” Egelman said. “And knowing that, then, we can go in many different directions, including developing ways to package DNA for gene therapy.”

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