Category Archives: Anatomy





The humerus  is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow.

Anatomically, in modern humans, it connects the scapula and the lower arm (consisting of the radius and ulna), and consists of three sections. The upper extremity consists of a rounded head, a narrow neck, and two short processes (tubercles, sometimes called tuberosities.) Its body is cylindrical in its upper portion, and more prismatic below. The lower extremity consists of 2 epicondyles, 2 processes (trochlea & capitulum), and 3 fossae (radial fossa, coronoid fossa, andolecranon fossa). As well as its true anatomical neck, the constriction below the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus is referred to as its surgical neck due to its tendency to commonly get fractured, thus often becoming the focus of surgeons.


Radius and Ulna




The radius or radial bone is one of the two large bones of the forearm, the other being the ulna. It extends from the lateralside of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist and runs parallel to the ulna, which exceeds it in length and size. It is a long bone, prism-shaped and slightly curved longitudinally. The radius articulates with the capitulum of the humerus, the radial notch and the head of the ulna. The corresponding bone in the lower leg is the tibia.

The word radius is Latin for “ray”. In the context of the radius bone, a ray can be thought of rotating around an axis line extending diagonally from center of capitulum to the center of distal ulna. While the ulna is the major contributor to the elbow joint, the radius primarily contributes to the wrist joint.[1]

The radius is named so because the radius (bone) acts like the radius (of a circle). It rotates around the ulna and the far end (where it joins to the bones of the hand), known as the styloid process of the radius, is the distance from the ulna (center of the circle) to the edge of the radius (the circle). The ulna acts as the center point to the circle because when the arm is rotated the ulna does not move.


The ulna or elbow bone (Latin:elbow) is one of the two long bones in the forearm, the other being the radius. It is prismatic in form and runs parallel to the radius, which is shorter and smaller. In anatomical position (i.e. when the arms are down at the sides of the body and the palms of the hands face forward) the ulna is located at the side of the forearm closest to the body (the medial side), the side of the little finger.

tibia and fibula


tibfib (1)





The tibia also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger and stronger of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates (the other being the fibula), and it connects the knee with the ankle bones. The tibia is found next to the fibula on the medial side of the leg, closer to centre-line. The tibia is connected to the fibula by the interosseous membrane of leg, forming a type of joint called a syndesmosis with very little movement. The tibia is named for the Greek aulos flute, also known as a tibia. It is commonly recognized as the strongest weightbearing bone of the body



The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below. It is the smaller of the two bones, and, in proportion to its length, the slenderest of all the long bones. Its upper extremity is small, placed toward the back of the head of the tibia, below the level of the knee joint, and excluded from the formation of this joint. Its lower extremity inclines a little forward, so as to be on a plane anterior to that of the upper end; it projects below the tibia, and forms the lateral part of the ankle joint.

Page 2 of 4
1 2 3 4