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Stop saying these 7 shaming words in medicine. Right now.

In medicine, our motto is first do no harm. Words matter. Choose them wisely. Here are 7 words that shame, blame, and injure people who need our help.

1. Don’t say COMMITTED suicide. Committed implies a crime. Committed rape, burglary, murder. Suicide is not a crime; it’s a medical condition that has been taboo for too long. Let’s come out of the dark ages and use proper language to discuss the cause of death. It’s died OF pneumonia, heart attack, stroke, suicide. Say died OF suicide (ordied BY suicide).

2. Don’t say she IS bipolar. People are people first. Some get physical and/or mental health conditions. The health condition is not their identity. She HAS pneumonia, heart disease, depression, not she IS pneumonia, heart disease, depression. Say she HAS bipolar disorder (or she is a person WITH bipolar disorder).

3. Don’t say he IS an addict. As in #2, people are people first. He is not a disease. He is not a behavior. Thus, he is not a substance abuser or an addict. He is a person who may have an addiction or a substance abuse disorder. Say he HAS an addiction.

4. Don’t say patient IS NON-COMPLIANT. Non-compliant blames the patient for not following a plan that she may have not understood or agreed to follow. Maybe she simply did not have money to buy the medication or the recommended treatment. Be precise and accurate with words, especially when placed in a permanent medical record. Don’t blame or shame. Be curious and engaging. Ask, “IS THE TREATMENT WORKING?” 

5. Don’t say PROVIDER. A provider is a person who provides something. How nebulous. In medicine, a provider is an economic term used to lump all the revenue-generators together into one pile (often to see how much more money can be squeezed out of them). It’s a dehumanizing word that lacks precision and, honestly, it’s offensive to the people who have spent so many years of their lives to achieve mastery in their chosen profession. Use proper terminology. Say NURSE PRACTITIONER, MIDWIFE, PHYSICIAN. If you must use a collective term, say HEALTH PROFESSIONALS. Sometimes, I say HEALERS.

6. Don’t say MIDLEVEL. What is that? Maybe it’s when an elevator gets stuck between two floors? Again (see #5) this is a word used by health care administrators to describe revenue generators who are somewhere halfway between a nurse and a doctor (I think). Use proper terminology. Say PHYSICIAN ASSISTANT or NURSE PRACTITIONER.

7. Don’t say BURNOUT. Physician burnout is a term of oppression that blames the doctor for not keeping up with an inhumane schedule (30-hour shifts, 120-hour work weeks) in a toxic workplace that may include hazing, bullying, and no time to eat or take bathroom breaks. Even on their so-called time off, doctors may still be working on chart notes at home in bed on the weekends. Burnout blames the victim and deflects attention from the perpetrator. Speak the truth. Say HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION or HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE. Don’t say burnout, say ABUSE.

Know of any other shaming words that should be lost from our lexicon? Add your comment below.

Applying to Medical School? The Odds are Against You

Being pre-med is not easy and trying to go to medical school is difficult. When trying to achieve something so difficult, it is only natural for failure to play such a big part of it. Think about the NBA or NFL for example. Millions of people aspire to go on to play professional sports but if you look at the statistics, merely a handful of people actually get to live their dreams of participating in professional sports. Although compared to professional sports, pursuing medicine is not the same level of difficulty but nonetheless it is hard. If you take a look at the numbers it is pretty interesting:

  • There are more than 200,000 premed students in the United States. This number is not even accurate because many students may start out as premed but not declare it or decide after a semester or two that they no longer want to be premed. So this is a definite understatement and the number of students is actually a lot larger.
  • There are more than 48,000 premed students in the United States who are applying to allopathic (MD) schools. About ¼ of the students who started out as a premed student actually go on to apply to medical school.
  • There are more than 14,000 premed students in the United States who are applying to osteopathic (DO) schools.
  • Out of the almost 50,000 students that apply for medical school, about 20,000 students actually matriculate into medical school which is less than half of the number that apply.

Taking a look at the statistics you will notice that the odds are against you – 200,000 pre-med students to 20,000 students who actually start medical school. That is 1:10 so if you think about the hundreds of students in your Biology class, out of the 10 students next to you, only one of you will go on to medical school. That is a rough thing to hear and is sad but you have to remain positive if you do want to pursue medicine. The odds will forever not be in your favor but the only thing that is on your side is your motivation and desire to pursue medicine.

You might be thinking what is the point of trying to pursue medicine if the odds are against you. The point is that there are many things you can do in your life in which the odds will be against you. But if the thought of failure scares you more than the thought of not trying to pursue your dreams, then that is something you have to consider. For me, the thought of not trying to pursue medicine scared me more than anything and therefore applying to medical schools was the only natural choice. People will always try to scare you out of doing certain things because the probability of you being successful may be low. Just remember that someone has to end up in those positions and if you really want to you can beat the odds.

How to Correctly Prescribe the Duration of Antibiotic Treatments

Just this week the World Health Organisation WHO has issued a warning that resistance of organisms to antibiotics will become one of the biggest challenges of the upcoming decade. Indeed, the correct prescription of antibiotics is crucial for successful treatment and the WHO states that completing the full length of the treatment is just as important.

But what is actually the correct length of treatment for all the different antibiotics and diseases? How many ward rounds on ICU’s have I spent with microbiologists (the maybe most important specialists on our sides!) wondering on how they always had a straight answer on the correct length of treatment. 7 days, 10 days or sometimes 21 days… a little mystery to most intensivists, until now!

Hitchhiking though the the wide space of the internet I finally found secret to this question. Back in the year 2010 Paul E. Sax, a Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School him self, posted an excellent blog for the NEJM Journal Watch website. Inspired by a New York Time article by Harvard Professor Daniel Gilbert he finally gave insight into one of the great mysteries of medicine:

To figure out how long antibiotics need to be given, use the following rules:

  1. Choose a multiple of 5 (fingers of the hand) or 7 (days of the week).
  2. Is it an outpatient problem that is relatively mild?  If so, choose something less than 10 days.  After application of our multiples rule, this should be 5 or 7 days.
  3. Is it really mild, so much so that antibiotics probably aren’t needed at all but clinician or patient are insistent?  Break the 5/7 rule and go with 3 days.  Ditto uncomplicated cystitis in young women.
  4. Is it a serious problem that occurs in the hospital or could end up leading to hospitalization?  With the exception of community-acquired pneumonia (5 or 7 days), 10 days is the minimum.
  5. Patient not doing better at the end of some course of therapy?  Extend treatment, again using a multiple of 5 or 7 days.
  6. Does the infection involve a bone or a heart valve?  Four weeks (28 days) at least, often 6 weeks (42 days).  Note that 5 weeks (35 days) is not an option — here the 5′s and 7′s cancel each other out, and chaos ensues.
  7. The following lengths of therapy are inherently weird, and should generally be avoided:  2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13 days.  Also, 3.14159265 days.

In this highly data-driven exercise, it is imporant also to note the number of rules — seven, as in days of the week.

That did not occur by chance

Wow, not much more I can add!


A Guide to taking a Psychiatric History

A good history is a fundamental part of any diagnosis. There are some areas like Psychiatry however, where taking a good and thorough history can be more of a challenge for a medical student. The purpose of taking a Psychiatric History can split into three main things;

  • Diagnostic
  • To gain a biopsychosocial understanding of the patient’s problem
  • Therapeutic & psycho-educational

Although while taking a history the structure may appear disjointed, the end result is usually under a set of headings which have a worldwide similarity.

The basic components of a Psychiatric History that I’ll use here are;

  • Identification
  • History of Presenting Complaint
  • Systems Review
  • Past Psychiatric History
  • Past Medical History
  • Family History
  • Personal History
    • Childhood
    • Occupational
    • Psycho-sexual
    • Drug & Alcohol
    • Forensic
  • Pre-morbid Personality

The key to psychiatric assessment is a comprehensive history & mental state examination.
A Primer of Clinical Psychiatry.

Please note this guide does not include everything that you should ask in a  Psychiatric History, but rather some components that I feel are key. It is also assumed that you are familiar with taking history’s in general, and this post just highlights the salient features of a Psychiatric History. A typical psychiatric interview can take 40 minutes or more.

Name, age, occupation, marital status, etc
Refereral: By Who, Why, When

HPC – History of Presenting Complaint
(in patients own words – including duration)

  • How are you? How long have you been here?
  • Why are you here? Why did you seek help?
  • Current Symptoms: onset, stressors, duration & course
  • Sleep: currently, changes over time?
  • Appetite: normal / increased / decreased?
  • Memory & concentration changes?
  • Current Mood:
    • Rate from 1-10.
    • Classify: Anxious? Depressed? Obsessional? Psychotic?
  • Screen for relevant events: e.g. recent death of a loved one, back from a war, etc
  • Details of any help-seeking behaviour.

SR – Other Psychiatric Symptoms
Much like doing a Systems Review for organic causes of disease, it is important to go through a check-list of other Psychiatric Symptoms, noting the positive & negative findings.

For example, a patient with an exacerbation of psychotic symptoms could also have depression in conjunction, and possibly suicidal ideologies.

It can also be useful to ask your standard Systems Review questions to rule out any organic causes of the patient’s presentation.

PΨHx – Past Psychiatric History
Full details are required of past psychiatric illnesses (e.g. depression, anxiety, etc)
Things to particularly ask about;

  • Admissions: How many? What for? How long?
  • Self-harm/Suicide attempts
  • Treatments: medication, psychotherapy, etc
  • Adverse reactions or events due to treatments
  • Support:  regular GP/Psychologist

PMHx – Past Medical History
Past medical history is useful to ascertain the general health of the patient. In particular, chronic medical conditions can often cause a decrease in the quality of life for that individual, which can manifest as psychiatric symptoms. Other points of interest;

  • Hospitalisations
  • Surgeries
  • Allergies, medication sensitivities and current medication (note those with psychiatric side-effects)

FHx – Family History
Many psychiatric disorders have a genetic component and the biological family history is thus relevant. It can also be useful in guiding treatment and management. It can be useful to draw a genogram with the patient.

Collecting information from other family members can sometimes allow you to develop a clearer picture.

Personal History
When taking a personal history it helps to map out the patient’s life in a longitudinal manner.

Childhood: Birth, development (e.g. motor, verbal & social milestones), family atmosphere? Happy or Sad childhood?

School: Enjoyed? Got on well with others? Other schooling? Truancy? Academic/sporting endeavours?
Drug & alcohol use during these years?

Occupation: Level of education completed? Jobs? How long? Why did they leave? Unemployment?

Psychosexual: Puberty (attitude towards & onset)? Sexual orientation? First experience? Relationships (past & current)? Marriage? Pregnancies?

It is also important to get a good grasp of the individual’s current life situation.

Drug & Alcohol History
Although Drug and Alcohol history can be considered part of Personal History, it requires special consideration as patients will often avoid discussing this topic. It is important to ask about alcohol, tobacco and common recreational drugs (e.g. marijuana).

Investigate: first exposure, patterns of use, effects, withdrawal symptoms, impacts on life, failed treatments or quitting attempts.

A common non-threatening screening tool for assessing alcohol abuse is the CAGE Questionnaire. It can also be adapted for other drugs.

Two “yes” responses indicate that the respondent should be investigated further. The questionnaire asks the following questions:

  • Have you ever felt you needed to Cut down on your drinking?
  • Have people Annoyed you by criticizing your drinking?
  • Have you ever felt Guilty about drinking?
  • Have you ever felt you needed a drink first thing in the morning (Eye-opener) to steady your nerves or to get rid of a hangover?

Forensic History
Forensic history should be obtained in a non-threatening way (e.g. have you ever been in trouble with the law?). A history of any misdemeanours and any consequences (e.g. prison) should be attained.

Premorbid Personality
Premorbid Personality may assist in diagnostic clarification and provides insight into what strengths/reserves the person may have. A good lead into this is, “What sort of person were you before you developed X?”

Other aspects to investigate:

  • Attitudes to others (social, family, etc) and to self.
  • Predominant mood
  • Hobbies & interests
  • Reactions to stress


  • A Primer of Clinical Psychiartry (2010) by David Castle & Darryl Bassett
  • Oxford handbook of Psychiatry (2005) by David Semple, Roger Smyth & Jonathan Burns
  • Ewing, John A. “Detecting Alcoholism: The CAGE Questionnaire” JAMA 252: 1905-1907, 1984

Top Online Resources for Medical Students

As medical students we are constantly bombarded by information at university. We are then expected to go home revise and further extend our knowledge. One strategy towards our self directed learning is to whip out our textbooks and delve into the lines and line of text and static imagery. Online resources are the alternative, they provide interactive and dynamic content and allow us to access information in a much greater variety of ways. The problems of information overload then really start to begin.

Using a selection of quality and informative online resources we can reduce this load, and I hope too today  share some of the resources I and others find particularly valuable in our education toolkit. Please note the list of resources are all freely available, however some more comprehensive options do exist that require payment/subscription. I recommending checking what online resources are provided by your Medical School.

Top 5 Search Engines
Search Engines play an important role in accessing information, but each come with their own strengths and weaknesses. While Google, Bing & Yahoo are fine for general search, they do not always return information that is relevant to the health profession. Consequently, utilising health specific search engines yield better results. These are the Top 5 Search for Health Professionals according For a more comprehensive overview of each click here.


Scirus is the Google for scientific information, currently covering over 480 million science-related Web pages. It’s is not only for medicine but covers a large portion of the science field. Searches can be broken down into Journal sources, preferred web (patent offices, universities, MD Consult and so on) and other web. You can integrate Scirus into your browser by either their Search Toolbar orFirefox extension.


Social Media Resources

Medpedia is best described as  a sibling of Wikipedia. A sibling that just happens to know a bit more about medicine and provides the correct information. Medical professionals collaborate to provide accurate information , however only Medical Doctors or researchers with a Ph.D in a biomedical field can edit. This allows everyone to contribute, but ensures the validity of the information.
The feature that is particularly useful for medical students and professionals is that for each entry there is an option for the ‘plain english’ and clinical version. Aside from the wiki, there are also various groups and communities in which you can interact.

Webicina is an aggregator of medical resources, including the best web 2.0 resources. This includes blogs, community sites, podcasts or search engines, among others, that focus on one specific issue. (e.g. cardiology).

Meducation is a community site for Doctors and medical students. At this it is primarily UK-based but contains a wide spectrum of useful medical resources (videos, powerpoints, notes and so on) and practice exam questions. You join by a simple registration process or you can connect via your Facebook account.

Doc2doc is another online community run by the BMJ that allows you to discuss aspects of medicine and puzzling cases. Doc2doc is more suitable for later level medical students as opposed to Meducation.

StudentDoctorNetwork (SDN) is both a community and information site. It covers a wide range of the medical field from audiology through to veterinary. In addition, it has a number of useful tips about coping with student life and career development.

PagingDr is an Aussie medical community.  While it was more of a pre-med community initially, as more of those members have passed through medical education the variety of members has increased (premeds, medical students, interns, and doctors). For a medical student, this community is more about discussing medical student life rather than in-depth case analysis and so on. So for example if you’re worried about getting an intern place or affording medical school, this a good place to look.

Medical Resources

  • Medical Dictionary – Not sure what a word means? Check out online medical dictionary for a concise answer.
  • Medical Mnemonics – Struggle to remember the cranial nerves or want an alternative way of learning. Medical mnemonics is a catalogue of mnemonic tools submitted by students and professionals for remembering components of medicine (from Anatomy through to Urology)
  • NCBI Books – A collection of freely available quality books.
  • Lab Tests online –  Want to know what test you need to order, what the results mean or what happens behind the scenes in a pathology lab, Lab tests online answers some of those questions.
  • LearnersTV –  A rich resource of medical video lectures ranging from anatomy, the sciences, heaps of physical examination videos, neurological examinations etc


  • Medscape is free resource for students and physicians and provides medical journal articles, drug references news and much more. A useful feature is to sign-up to their MedscapeCME Case Studies. Each week they will send you an email with a Case study to test and challenge your current medical knowledge. An iphone app is also available.
  • LifeinthefastLane Clincal Images & Cases – Provide a wide range of clinical cases per week, and have a great summary of clinical images.
  • MDCalc – Performs common medical calculations used in diagnosis.

Cardiology & Respiratory



  • Learn Genetics – Learn.Genetics provided by the University of Utah delivers educational materials on genetics, bioscience and health topics.



  • Shotgun Histology – A selection of videos investigating the histology of different tissues. A highly valuable resource for those who have had no experience in histology.




  • Grays Anatomy – A timeless resource which features 1,247 vibrant engravings—many in color—from the classic 1918 publication.
  • InnerBody – Covers all body systems from Cardiovascular to Urinary anatomy. Each topic has animations, 100’s of anatomy graphics, and thousands of descriptive links.
  • Instant Anatomy


  • Surgical Exam – An online resource for those interested in surgery. Has cases, MCQs, an endoscopy library and much more.
  • The AO Surgery Reference is a huge online repository of surgical knowledge, consisting of more than 7’000 pages. It overviews surgical procedures, surgical decision making, and has an abundance of images and videos.


  • Human Embryology – A comprehensive resource developed by a collaboration between a number of Swiss Universities. Would highly recommend.
  • UNSW Embryology – A resource by Dr Mark Hill which contains animations, images, text and links to help you understand how the body develops.



  • Anaesthesia MCQ – An interactive resource of tutorials, a forum, exam questions and links pertaining to anaesthesia. Useful for understanding of pharmacology, acid-base system and for GAMSAT or MCAT type questions.
  • Neuromuscular Disease Center (Washington University) –

Mobile Content

This rounds up the current list of useful medical resources. I will be adding some more as time goes on to the resources section. Feel free to share resources that you find useful.

How to take an Obstetric History

Obstetrics is the field of medicine which encompasses the care of a woman during pregnancy and childbirth. In that way it is very unique, as when assessing these patients, your actually also assessing another the child. Consequently, the approach to history taking in Obstetrics whilst similar to other fields of medicine, includes a number of additional components.

The following is a guide to taking an Obstetric History, that will ensure you miss none of the key components.

Presenting Complaint
What is the problem that brought you to the hospital/clinic?

Some common presenting complaints include;

  1. ◘   Bleeding
  2. ◘   Abdominal Pain
  3. ◘   Hypertension
  4. ◘   Physiological complaints due to pregnancy
The patient may also be presenting as part of standard antenatal care (as per your local guidelines).

History of Presenting Complaint
Often there will be overlap between the history of the presenting complaint and the history of the current pregnancy.

History of Current Pregnancy
The history of current pregnancy should ideally be considered by the different trimesters to date. This will be useful for understanding common issues that arise at each stage, and also determining appropriate antenatal care and management.

General Questions

  1. ◘   Last menstrual Period (LMP)
  2. ◘   Estimated delivery date and approximate Gestational Age.
  3. ◘   Any concerns about your pregnancy
  4. ◘   What are your expectations regarding your pregnancy

First Trimester

  1. ◘   Further details regarding menstrual history (as below)
  2. ◘   Was the Pregnancy planned?
  3. ◘   How was the pregnancy confirmed?
  4. ◘   Signs and symptoms of pregnancy.
  5. ◘   How/has the pregnancy been dated (e.g. dating Ultrasound Scan)?
  6. ◘   What tests and scans have you had to date?
  7. ◘   Current medical illnesses and medications.

Second Trimester

  1. ◘   Any problems during second 3 months?
    1. Bleeding, vaginal discharge, urinary problems and so on.
  2. ◘   Last visit to the doctor?
    1. Has an Ultrasound scan (e.g. morphology scan) been done?
    2. Blood tests to date?
    3. Blood pressure?
    4. Growth of foetus, placenta location.

Third Trimester

  1. ◘   Any issues after the first 6 months of your pregnancy?
    1. Bleeding, vaginal discharge, urinary problems, labour pain.
    2. Blood pressure
    3. Glucose
    4. Test results
  2. ◘   Any plans or ideas about method of delivery.

Past Obstetric History
Gravidity: the number of times a woman has been pregnant, regardless of the outcome.
Parity: the number of times a female has given birth to a baby.

There are many different methods and protocols by which Gravidity and Parity are denoted, please be aware of your local policy and documentation guidelines.

A simple system commonly used in the UK is;

G= Gravidity, P = Parity: X = (any live or still birth after 24 weeks);
Y = (number lost before 24 weeks)

A woman who has never given birth is a nullipara, a nullip, or para 0.
A woman who has given birth two or more times is multiparous and is called a multip.
A woman in her first pregnancy and who has therefore not yet given birth is a nullipara or nullip. After she gives birth she becomes a primip.

A woman who has given birth once before is primiparous, and would be referred to as a primipara or primip.

Details of each pregnancy

  1. ◘   Dates of deliveries
  2. ◘   Length of pregnancies
  3. ◘   Singleton/twin and so on
  4. ◘   Induction of labour/Spontaneous
  5. ◘   Mode of Delivery
  6. ◘   Weight of babies
  7. ◘   Gender of babies
  8. ◘   Complications before, during and after delivery

Number of miscarriages, terminations and/or ectopics – with appropriate details.

  1. ◘   This question should be asked as some patients will not consider the above situations as pregnancy.

Any difficulties conceiving and any treatment/management to date for sub-fertility.

Past Gynaecological History
If it hasn’t been so already, you should first gain a Menstrual History as appropriate.

  1. ◘   1st day of last menstrual period
  2. ◘   Duration and regularity of normal cycle
  3. ◘   Flow: heavy/light, clots, number of tampons/pads used
  4. ◘   Pain
Last Cervical Smear (Pap Smear): when and results.
Any Gynaecology Surgery?
  1. ◘   D&C
  2. ◘   Loop excision of transitional zone (LETZ)
  3. ◘   Previous C-Sections
Treatment or investigations for; ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility
This may be an appropriate place to take a Sexual History (see sexual history for further details).

Past Medical & Surgical History
Current or past illnesses

  1. ◘   Hypertension
  2. ◘   Diabetes
  3. ◘   Epilepsy
  4. ◘   Thyroid (hypo or hyper)
  5. ◘   Thromboembolic disease
  6. ◘   Asthma
Hospital Admissions: when, where and why.
Surgical procedures
  1. ◘   when, where, why and details concerning procedure
  2. ◘   abdominal or gynaecological procedures
  3. ◘   problems with anaesthesia
  4. ◘   problems with bleeding (requiring transfusion) or clotting
Vaccinations/immunisations up to date?

Current Medications & Allergies
Medications can be divided into prescribed medications and non-prescribed medications/herbal remedies. The latter should not be missed, and approached in non-judgemental way.
Allergic to any medications?

Family History

  1. ◘   Medical conditions
  2. ◘   Obstetric complications
  3. ◘   Genetic conditions

Social History

  1. ◘   Occupation
  2. ◘   Relationship Status
  3. ◘   Diet/physical activity
  4. ◘   Smoking
  5. ◘   Alcohol
  6. ◘   Drug use
  7. ◘   Living Situation
  8. ◘   Travel History

  1. ◘   ABC of labour care – Obstetric emergencies
  2. ◘   Borton, Chloe (November 12, 2009). “Gravidity and Parity Definitions (and their Implications in Risk Assessment)”.
  3. ◘   The Medical Significance of the Obstetric H… [Am Fam Physician. 1983] – PubMed – NCBI.

Free CME Online-Continuing Medical Education

Free CME Online

Free online CME courses are usually sponsored by pharmaceutical companies or device manufacturers. In our listings, we try to identify the sponsoring organization or any affiliation the CME providers may have. As you would imaging, these courses usually deal with the specific pharmaceutical or medical device industry sold by the sponsoring company, but does not specifically identify brands. These courses generally meet the qualifying standards for Category 1 CME courses and therefore qualify for medical CME credits.

PRA Category 1 free online continuing medical education courses are offered by PRIME which are categorized into specialty practice and are augmented with free monthly case studies for physicians. Many of these meet relicensure requirements and are provided free without commercial support. Another major provider of free CME online courses is Medscape. These courses often take the form of “reports” and “highlights” from major medical meetings. The programs are generally of high quality and qualify for Category 1 CME credits. A wide variety of medical specialties (everything fromInternal Medicine CME to Psychiatry CME and Surgery CME) are covered.

There are also a small number of free CME courses provided by medical schools and training hospitals that can be accessed from anywhere. More often, though, CME courses provided by these institutions cost about $25/credit hour. For example, Harvard provides several online CME courses and charges between $20 and $50 per credit hour.

Free CME Course Lists

MedPix: Category 1 CME for physicians and CE for nursing professionals from the Uniformed Services University. One hour of category 1 CME credit is awarded for every 4 “case of the week” completed and after filling out an online survey.

Free Ultrasound CME – this is a catalog of online courses provided by GE and Siemens

Johns Hopkins CME – Hopkins provides online CME courses in a wide range of specialties. Each course is reviewed regularly.

CME courses – the Netdoc database is one of the most comprehensive and easily searched databases of both online CME courses and live or mail CME.

Emergency medicine CME – LLSA: The emergency medicine specialty has shifted to the Lifelong Learning Self Assessment (LLSA) model of recertification. This resource provides links to the LLSA reading list and requirements.

Medicine Board Review – Board review options including courses that offer Category 1 CME credits.

Please note, the editors of have not reviewed the listed CME courses for completeness or accuracy.

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