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Treatment Of Medical Emergencies Like Burns, Bites And Rashes

It is always helpful to know at least the basic first aid so that you can treat problems like burns, rashes and bites when they occur. However, there are a number of instances when home remedies are not enough and it is necessary to get professional medical treatment for the problem immediately.

Here are ways to treat these problems so that the person can heal quickly and properly.

How do you Treat a Burn?

There are three ‘degrees’ of burns that you should be aware about.

A first degree burn is one that only affects the topmost layer of the skin. In this case, your skin will probably turn pink in that area and you may start to see a blister form over there. For a first degree burn, creams that contain aloe or antibiotics can help reduce the burning sensation and make it heal faster.

A second degree burn is one where the first and second layer of the skin gets affected. In this case, the skin will be shiny and red in the area that has been burned.

A third degree burn is even worse and there are times when the skin is completely burnt off and the bone can be seen.

In second and third degree burns, it is necessary to get medical attention immediately so that it can be treated properly.

How do you Treat a Bite?

There is no home treatment for a bite. Whether you or a loved one has been bitten by a snake, an insect or an animal, it is necessary to get medical attention immediately. Of course, this does not mean that you have to rush to the emergency room if you have been bitten by a regular mosquito. But for any kind of bite that forms an unnatural swelling or if it has taken off any part of the skin, you should get it checked immediately so that any poison can get contained as quickly as possible.

How do you Treat a Rash?

Rashes can be caused by a number of irritants like detergents, plant pollen, etc. If any of these irritants come in contact with the skin, the skin may start to itch and a rash may be seen. Rashes may occur as a one-time ordeal or they may reappear from time to time. If you suspect that the rash is caused due to an allergy, it is recommended that you visit a doctor so that an anti-allergen can be administered. If it is just a simple rash then you can also try treating it as home first by removing the irritant and then applying ointments on the rash to soothe the itching feeling.

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Avoid 4 Medical School Admissions Myths

When you decide to apply to medical school, it seems that everybody has tips on how to succeed in the application process. It can be very difficult to know if you’re putting your best foot forward in a process riddled with multiple forms, deadlines, requirements, and—the most nebulous of them all—myths.

So, what is truth, and what is fiction?

Most pre-meds have done enough legwork to know the basic realities of the application process. Everyone has to fill out the AMCAS application, get at least three letters of recommendation, and complete as many or as few of the essay-heavy secondary applications that each school likes to create.

[See U.S. News‘s rankings of Best Medical Schools.]

These are among the most common myths about the process floating around college campuses:

1. I need more extracurricular activities / clinical experience in order to apply. Not necessarily! While medical schools want to make sure that you are aware of what you’reSIGNING UP for (which you demonstrate through a clinical experience), they don’t expect you to publish or perform brain surgery beforehand. Schools would prefer to see an applicant who is committed to a handful of activities over a couple of years than one who dabbles in 15 with little staying power.

2. The application may include essays, but it’s ultimately only about the grades. This widely held myth has sabotaged many an application. Though strong grades and MCAT scores are important, most top applicants will have similar scores, grades, and extracurricular experiences. The AMCAS personal statement is your way of securing an interview. Given most, if not all, medical schools only admit those they interview, it would be wise to spend quality time reflecting on your experiences and aspirations to highlight what differentiates you from the pack.

3. Secondary applications must be submitted within two weeks of receipt. Many think that medical schools believe those who submit most quickly are the most interested. In terms of rolling admissions, the advantage of submitting early ends up beingMARGINAL; it is much better to spend an extra week polishing your application than rushing to submit one that is less stellar.

4. Not knowing the answer to a question during an interview can make or break an application.You’ve probably heard stories of applicants being asked “stumper” questions during an interview, such as “Tell me about protein folding,” or “Name the five areas of the world that have a Mediterranean climate.” These questions are used to see how you handle yourself under pressure, rather than to check if you actually know the answer. It’s okay to say, “I’m sorry; I don’t know the answer to that.” Don’t forget to add, “I’d be happy to research that and get back to you.” And you actually do need to get back to them!

[See 10 medical schools with the lowest acceptance rates.]

Of course, there are plenty more myths about the smaller aspects of this often complex admissions process. Some easy tips to keep in mind:

• Be yourself: Sounds simple—yet, it’s probably the least followed piece of advice. Forget about what you think medical schools want to hear. Write about the essence of you, why you want to go to medical school, and why medical schools would want you. This can take a lot of introspection, so it’s best to start now.

• Be polite: When you’re making phone calls, asking for letters, or going through your interview day, a simple, thoughtful thank you note to your recommenders, interviewers, and even the secretaries at each of the schools you visit can go a long way. You’d be surprised who talks to whom and what might make an applicant stand out—in a good way, or in a terrible way.

You should approach the admissions process as an opportunity to highlight your unique and differentiating qualities. Focusing on how your experiences INFLUENCED your desire to pursue medicine, and honing how you present yourself, is the best way to succeed.

Top 10 reasons I’m glad to be in medical school

A friend of mine e-mailed me this blog entry awhile ago. Titled “10 things you need to give up to become a doctor,” the piece describes “your free weekends,” “your desire to change the world,” and eight other similarly positive items as areas of life that medical students need to sacrifice on their path to becoming a doctor.

As I read through this entry, my mood grew increasingly dismal. By opting to go to medical school, had I really committed myself to a lifetime that, according to the author, would be devoid of creativity, good health, big dreams, and more? I refused to believe that was true.

So, instead of dwelling on aspects of my life that may or may not be compromised on my path to becoming a physician, I want to highlight parts of my life that have been enriched by my medical school experience thus far. Here we go: The top ten reasons (organized loosely by importance) that I’m glad to be in medical school:

10. Four extra years of free two-day shipping via Amazon Student
I’ve ordered everything from tuning forks to trash bins – and I look forward to myFUTURE purchases being delivered via drones. Thanks, Amazon!

9. Daily dose of cheaper-than-Starbucks caffeine
For everyone paying $2.95 for a latte at Starbucks, be jealous! Stanford medical students get $2.70 lattes (+ an extra 25 cents off if you bring your own mug) at the Med Café every day.

8. 24/7 gym access
The 4th floor of Li Ka Shing is strictly for medical/bioscience students only and houses study rooms, a lounge, and a gym. Not that I ever have the urge toWORK out at 4 AM, but if I wanted to, I could!

7. Having friends come to me when they’re sick and feeling like I can diagnose them
Friend: “I’m feeling a little sick.”
(Five minutes later)
Me: “Actually, come see me again in like 4 years.”

6. Sleeping in scrubs like it’s no big deal
Because, really, they’re the most comfortable pieces of clothing I own.

5. Living life on pass/fail
It feels like this is the first time in my life where I’ve been given the freedom to learn at my own pace, in my own style. There are very few assignments in medical school, and as such, we can take the material presented to us and decide for ourselves how to master it. I can’t describe how incredibly refreshing this approach is.

4. Being on a text-message basis with role model physicians
Following my first patient encounter, one of my advisors texted me, saying: “You are a skilled, empathetic interviewer. I greatly enjoyedWORKING together yesterday and look forward to more experiences.” Needless to say, my advisor’s thoughtful, compassionate words completely made my day.

3. Full-length white coats
At Stanford, medical students receive white coats that are just as long (i.e. up to our knees) as coats worn by MDs in the clinic – a constant reminder that there are no hierarchies: We are part of a single medical team, with theSHARED goal of caring for someone in need.

2. Being surrounded by inspired, motivated classmates
From founding non-profit organizations to creating World Health Organization reports to winning international awards for their research, my classmates are among the most accomplished, friendly, and down-to-earth individuals I have ever met.

1. Finding meaning every day of my life
Whether it’s through a patient visit, an anatomy lecture, a morning at pediatrics rounds, or a standardized patient encounter, I’m reminded every day that what I’m learning is directly linked to caring for others.

Hamsika Chandrasekar is a first-

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How to Apply for Scholarships

Applying for scholarships is a lot like applying to colleges. You start with a large number of possibilities and cut that down to a short list of choices. Then you have to complete and submit applications that include essays, recommendations and lists of achievements that highlight your best qualities. scholarship3

You may hear various suggestions about the best way to apply for scholarships. The truth is, what works for one person may not work for another. There are no secrets to applying. The best advice is to use common sense and follow directions.

Don’t Miss Deadlines

Some scholarships have deadlines early in the fall of senior year. Mark the due dates on your calendar and work your way backward to figure out how much time you’ll have to get each piece of the application finished.

Start Your Research Early

Researching scholarships, requesting information and application materials, and completing applications all take time. UseScholarship Search to get started.

Read Eligibility Requirements Carefully

If you have a question about whether you qualify for a certain scholarship, contact the scholarship sponsor. There’s no point in applying for a scholarship you’re not eligible to receive.

Get Organized

Make a separate file for each scholarship and sort the files by application due dates.

You should also gather the items you’ll need to apply. Many scholarships ask you to send some or all of the following:

  • High school transcript
  • Standardized test scores
  • Financial aid forms, such as the FAFSA or CSS/Financial Aid PROFILE®
  • Parents’ financial information, including tax returns
  • One or more essays
  • One or more letters of recommendation
  • Proof of eligibility for the scholarship (for example, proof of membership in a certain group)

You might also need to prepare for an interview. And if you’re competing for talent-based scholarships, you’ll probably need to audition or submit a portfolio.

Follow Instructions

Stick to the word limit for the essay. If supporting materials are not requested in the application, don’t send them.

Check Your Application

Before you send the application in:

  • Make sure you filled in all the blanks. You can contact scholarship sponsors if you aren’t sure how to fill out part of the application.
  • Make sure your answers are readable. If you can, fill out the application online. If you have to write out the application, print neatly.
  • If you’re reusing material (such as a cover letter or an essay) from another scholarship application, make sure you haven’t left in any incorrect names.
  • Proofread your application. Run spell check and grammar check on the application. Also, have someone else read your essays to catch mistakes and give you feedback.
  • Remember to sign and date your application.

Keep Copies of Everything

Having copies of your scholarship application makes it easy to resend quickly if application materials get lost in the mail. If you’re applying for a scholarship online, save copies of your work on your computer.

Track the Package

If you’re submitting your application by mail, consider using certified mail or requesting a return receipt to confirm that your materials arrived at their destination.

how to improve your memory

Memory lapses can be both embarrassing (what’s my neighbor’s kid’s name again?) and troubling (is senility coming on?). But a few slipups don’t necessarily doom you to a future of utter forgetfulness. A memory is made by linking two or more of the 100 billion nerve cells in your brain, called neurons, then solidifying the connection so you can use it later, says Neal Barnard, an adjunct associate professor of medicine at the George Washington University School of Medicine, in Washington, D.C. And “your brain continues to develop neurons and build new connections to strengthen memory as you age, a phenomenon called neuroplasticity,” says Brianne Bettcher, a neuropsychology fellow at the University of California, San Francisco, Memory and Aging Center. “So it’s never too late to improve your powers of recall.” That’s where these nine strategies come in. They’ll help you hone your memory today and keep it robust for years to come. mem

1. Get More Sleep

Experts agree that if you do only one thing to improve your memory, getting more sleep should be it. “Sleep is key time for your brain to solidify the connections between neurons,” says Barnard. In a study published in the journal Sleep Medicine, researchers asked subjects to perform some memory tasks and then either take a nap or stay awake. The people who napped remembered more of the tasks they had performed than did those who stayed up. Rule of thumb: Get seven to nine hours of sleep total each day. And, yes, naps count.

2. Jog Your Memory

Literally. Running—or biking or swimming or doing any other type of cardiovascular activity—for 20 to 30 minutes three times a week has been proven to help you remember things better. Raising your heart rate gets blood flowing to your brain, enlarges the hippocampus (the most vital part of the brain for memory), and increases the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a protein necessary for long-term memory. Also, “cardiovascular exercise can actually cause new connections to sprout between neurons in the hippocampus,” says Peter J. Snyder, a professor of neurology at Brown University’s Alpert Medical School.

3. Have Some Food (and Drink) for Thought

Your brain can’t function properly without essential nutrients and chemical compounds. “Blueberries are the top source of substances called anthocyanins, which are brain-boosting antioxidants,” says Joy Bauer, a registered dietitian based in New York City and the author of The Joy Fit Club ($28, “Studies have shown that anthocyanins shield the brain against inflammation and oxidation, both of which can damage neurons and make them less effective at communicating with one another.” Bauer also recommends fitting in leafy green vegetables as often as possible. “Long-term studies have shown that people who eat large amounts of spinach, kale, and other leafy greens have less age-related memory decline, thanks to phytonutrients like vitamin C,” she says. You might also want to start enjoying a drink with dinner. Research published in The New England Journal of Medicine found that women who had one drink a day were 20 percent less likely than teetotalers or heavier drinkers to experience a decline in their cognitive function, including the ability to remember points of a paragraph that had been read to them 15 minutes earlier. The researchers believe this may be because moderate alcohol consumption elevates levels of HDL cholesterol (the good kind) and improves the condition of the blood that reaches the brain.

4. Choose Smart Supplements

Forget about ginkgo biloba. A recent study found that this herbal supplement has no positive impact on memory. However, a few supplements are known to encourage the growth of new neurons and decrease substances that can inhibit cognitive function. The gold standard is fish oil, according to Lori Daiello, an assistant professor of neurology (research) at the Alpert Medical School. Fish oil has been associated with lowering the risk of dementia because it contains DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid that decreases the production of memory-inhibiting substances in the brain and that may be involved in the formation of new neurons, says Daiello. Increasing your consumption of fatty fish, like salmon, helps; or you can take a daily supplement containing at least 180 milligrams of DHA. Vitamin D may also work, since it “stimulates the growth of new neurons and helps clear protein abnormalities associated with diseases that affect memory, such as dementia,” says David J. Llewellyn, a research fellow in epidemiology and public health at the University of Exeter, in England. (The U.S. Department of Agriculture recommends women take at least 600 international units [IU] daily.) You might also consider a folic acid, B6, and B12 complex. “All three of these B vitamins are needed to remove the amino acid homocysteine from your blood,” says Barnard. “Homocysteine is produced during normal processes in the body, but if too much of it builds up, it can result in poor brain function.”

5. Get Still

“Meditation improves your concentration and focus, which benefits memory,” says Dharma Singh Khalsa, the medical director and the president of the Alzheimer’s Research & Prevention Foundation, in Tucson. In addition, meditation has been shown to reduce stress, which can do a number on memory. “When we’re under stress, our body and brain release hormones such as cortisol, adrenaline, and CRH [corticotropin-releasing hormone], which in short bursts can help us fight or flee danger,” says Tallie Z. Baram, a professor of neurological sciences at the University of California, Irvine. But when you’re stressed-out over long periods of time, these hormones change the structure of the hippocampus, destroying nerve endings involved in information flow. A study released last year showed that subjects who performed a 12-minute chanting meditation once a day for eight weeks saw marked improvement in their memory and increased blood flow in the areas of the brain used in a variety of memory tasks. (Find instructions on how to start a meditation practice at

6. Do Something Out of the Ordinary

New experiences, such as taking a different route to work, can also improve recall. “Our brains are constantly deciding what’s important enough to remember and what can be tossed away,” says R. Douglas Fields, a senior investigator in neuroscience at the National Institutes of Health, in Bethesda, Maryland. “When you’re in a novel situation, your brain assumes that information is going to be important and holds on to it.” Also, “you’ll better retain things that happen immediately after a novel experience,” he says. “The cellular machinery of consolidating short-term memories into long-term ones has been activated, so it keeps working.” Which means that after your new commute, you may be better able to remember what happens at the morning meeting.

7. Check Your Medicine Cabinet

A number of medications can affect memory, says Barnard, including antihistamines; antidepressants, like Prozac; antianxiety drugs, like Xanax; and sleep aids, like Ambien. Each has its own way of working in the brain. For instance, Barnard says, “antihistamines block acetylcholine, a brain transmitter necessary for short-term memory, while Xanax and Ambien knock out episodic memory, so anything that happens when you’re on the medication may not stick around in your brain.” Don’t stop taking any prescription drug without talking to your doctor, but bring up the subject at your next visit. An alternative medicine or treatment may be available.


8. Get Checked Out

Two more-serious (but less common) issues could cause memory lapses: gluten sensitivity and thyroid disease. “If you have an undiagnosed sensitivity to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, and you’re eating foods like bread and crackers, your memory could suffer,” says Stefano Guandalini, the medical director of the Celiac Disease Center at the University of Chicago Comer Children’s Hospital. Many people describe the feeling as a “brain fog”—a slightly out-of-it, fuzzy sensation. Your doctor can screen for gluten sensitivity, and dietary modifications can keep the condition in check. Thyroid disorders can also wreak havoc on recall. If you notice increasing forgetfulness, along with depression or a change in weight or your periods, see your doctor. Medication often gets the condition under control.

9. Challenge Your Head

“We know that people who are cognitively active have better memory as they age,” says Michael Kahana, the director of the Computational Memory Lab at the University of Pennsylvania and the author ofFoundations of Human Memory ($60, So how can you keep your brain going strong? “Staying engaged in the world around you reinforces the connections between neurons,” says Bettcher. “So do some fun activities that make you think.” Go to a museum once a month, learn words in a new language, watch a documentary on a subject that fascinates you, or—yes—do a crossword or sudoku puzzle. Another strategy: Quiz yourself. For example, if you want to remember new people you met at an event, “picture each of their faces and try to remember their names on the ride home,” says Henry L. Roediger III, a professor of psychology at Washington University, in St. Louis. When you flex your brain this way, you’ll be able to pull up their

How to Check Your Pulse

You can check your pulse by counting how many times your heart beats in a minute. This is also known as your heart rate.

Your heart rate can vary, depending on what you’re doing. For example, it will be slower if you’re sleeping and faster if you’re exercising. check-pulse

Finding your pulse

You can find your pulse in places where an artery passes close to your skin, such as your wrist or neck.

To find your pulse in your wrist:

  • hold out one of your hands, with your palm facing upwards and your elbow slightly bent
  • put the first finger (index) and middle finger of your other hand on the inside of your wrist, at the base of your thumb
  • press your skin lightly until you can feel your pulse – if you can’t feel anything, you may need to press a little harder or move your fingers around

To find your pulse in your neck, press the same two fingers on the side of your neck in the soft hollow area just beside your windpipe.

Checking your pulse

When you find your pulse, either:

  • count the number of beats you feel for one full minute
  • count the number for 30 seconds and multiply by two

The figure you get is the number of times per minute your heart is beating. It’s known as your resting heart rate, as long as you’ve been resting for at least five minutes before checking your pulse.

You can also check if your pulse is regular or irregular by feeling its rhythm for about 20-30 seconds. Occasional irregular heartbeats, such as missed beats, are very common. However, if your pulse is irregular for a continued length of time, it can be a sign of atrial fibrillation (a heart condition that causes an irregular and often abnormally fast heart rate). This becomes more common as you get older and affects about 10% of people over 75.

If you’re concerned about your pulse, see your GP.

What’s a normal heart rate?

Most adults have a resting heart rate of 60-100 beats per minute (bpm).

The fitter you are, the lower your resting heart rate is likely to be. For example, athletes may have a resting heart rate of 40-60 bpm or lower.

You should contact your GP if you think your heart rate is continuously above 120 bpm or below 40 bpm, although this could just be normal for you.

Exercise and your pulse

If you check your pulse while you’re exercising or immediately afterwards, it may give an indication of your fitness level. A heart rate monitor is also useful for recording your heart rate when resting and during exercise.

Aerobic activities such as walking, running and swimming are good types of exercise, because they increase your heart and breathing rates.

How To Stay Awake All Night To Study Before Exam Without Feeling Sleepy

What is it with books and sleep and why do students find themselves trapped in this horrendous ‘sleep attack’ when they are supposed to be studying? Studies have revealed that one in 5 students will face this before very important assignments and poor results shall follow. The perils of sleeping right when you need to study can be really grave and you might end up faring really really bad in your tests! Stay-awake

Considering that we generally tend to leave maximum studies for the last day before the exam, it becomes all the more important that you don’t doze off! Here are some simple, interesting and doable study tips and tricks that can not only keep you awake to pull an all-nighter, but also in keeping alert and attentive, so that you can make most of your time and get good marks! Preparing yourself to study at late night without sleep would include steps throughout the day –

  1. No Physical Hard-Work – Staying awake all night long to study is related to individual’s stamina. From the beginning of the day, start saving your energy for late night studies that is required to withstand prolonged mental exertion. Promise yourself that you would not do anything that requires physical hard-work (extensive or slight) throughout the day. Talk less, move less and use phones or tabs less.
  2. Healthy Breakfast – Start your day with food that is rich in proteins. Proteins are basically energy boosters, and whenever you need to give yourself a boost, you should eat protein-rich foods such as eggs, sprouts, low-fat cheese and so on. This way you are going to remain charged and focused for the next 24 hours. It is also important that you have light food at night, so that you don’t get overloaded and become sleepy.
  3. Rest Your Body – Sleep loss takes a toll on energy and grasping power. It’s advisable that you sleep enough in the afternoon, so that your body has had enough rest for the night. You need to make sure that staying awake the entire night is absolutely important, otherwise, you might just be spoiling your sleep cycle in the time to come. Most of us are not able to concentrate on studies in the daytime, because we want our surroundings to absolutely quiet.
  4. Sources of Distraction – Turn off all sources of distraction such as phones and messengers. It is essential that you create a place where you can concentrate on your studies. You have to make a conscious effort to concentrate and throwing your phone away is really an important first step.
  5. List of Topics – Make a list of topics or lessons that are important to study because it’s almost impossible to cover entire course in one night. Keep this list in front of you entire night. Start with topics that are essential, you can enjoy and easy to understand for you; this is how you can keep yourself inspired the whole night. Leaving the less relevant topics for later is advisable.
  6. Make It Interesting – It is essential that you keep rotating topics of studies throughout the night. This way monotony will not take over and you will be able to study more and more throughout the night. You can find more ways that work best for you to keep your interest in studies.
  7. Write Important Points – Writing down important points will help in learning and understand them better and fast. This is why you should always keep a notebook and a pen ready. Headings and their sub-headings are most important points, so never miss them. You can also create a table of special terms or difficult words and a short note (of 3-6 words) before each of them.
  8. Correct Posture – Yes, we know how much you will crave for your bed and a quilt by nightfall. But the fact is that you are simply inviting sleep this way. You need to sit in a proper chair and place your books on a table, so that your posture is attentive and alert, hereby avoiding sleep and helping you concentrate more.
  9. Avoid Coffee – You are wrong if you think coffee will help you stay awake and attentive.Caffeine in the night time usually acts like a detonator for sleep. You should avoid coffee or energy drinks completely. You should rather drink a glass of water after every half hour or so. This keeps your body and mind fresh and active. This also means that you will need to go to washroom frequently, hence helps you stay awake!
  10. Taking Short Breaks – Short Breaks of about 5-10 minutes after every hour or so will not only keep you awake, but also give your mind a refresh. In this break, you can try pacing across the room, splashing your face with water and stretching exercises. This will help in rejuvenating your mind and body, helping you to focus better.

All in all, you need to be prepared well, so that your ‘all-night study routine’ can be a success. As a safety note, you should avoid driving the following day as there is no trick that can keep a sleep-deprived person awake while driving. Consider a ride with a friend or take public transportation. GOOD LUCK, Students!

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